Analysis essays

free essayThe term desertification is, as a rule, explained as the land degradation process that leads to the reduction or loss of biological or economic productivity of the territory. It usually takes place in arid, semi-arid and dry types of areas. Furthermore, it is frequently a result of a variety of factors which comprise different human activities and the process of climate change. No doubt, people’s actions, i.e. excessive cultivation of arable land, including deforestation and poor irrigation, are the main causes of the issue. In accordance with the statements of the United Nations Environment Program, the third of the planet’s surface has already been despoiled, which, accordingly, affects the lives of more than 1 billion people in more than 100 countries (Fleskens and Stringer 2).

A Problem Statement

Desertification is acclaimed to be one of the most harmful effects on land caused by human activities. Due to this phenomenon, the economic and environmental losses result in numerous inevitable consequences for both economics and ecology of different countries. Hence, it is significant to evaluate and find the most optimal ways to struggle against it.

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Discussion of the Issue

The European Community recognizes that soil is the main natural resource, extremely complex in its composition, mostly not renewable, but despite this, some human activities lead to its serious damage. Soil consists of mineral and organic substances such as carbon, nutrients, water, air and living organisms and is a source of food, biomass and natural materials (D’Odorico et al. 331). It serves as a platform for the activities of mankind, constitutes an important element of the landscape and world heritage. The soil structure is extremely diverse: only in Europe, 10,000 types have been identified and grouped into 320 main categories. Any deterioration of soil conditions affects other natural environments and ecosystems. The formation of one centimeter of soil can take place over the centuries, and its destruction only because of wind or water is possible in a few years.

At present, the level of soil degradation is increasing. In part, this is a natural phenomenon, but the activity of mankind also leads to the deterioration of natural resources (Symeonakis et al. 1571). In particular, inappropriate agricultural management accelerates erosion processes, reducing the content of organic substances, and, consequently, bringing about the decrease of the fertility of land. Moreover, intensive grazing and unreasonable use of heavy machines lead to excessive compaction of soils. Additionally, irregular irrigation can cause salinization of land (Brandt and Geeson 121). The increase in the population, tourism, and irrational use of lands increase the risk of landslides in some regions of Europe and the US. Industry pollutes the soil as well. Approximately 10% of the surface of the European Community is covered by roads and concrete structures, which accompanies the disruption of the circulation of gas, water and energy, and consequently, reduces the fertility of the land (Bestelmeyer et al. 30). The European Union estimates the annual damage from soil degradation amounts to 38 billion euros (Bestelmeyer et al. 30). In addition, the deterioration of the soil condition is associated with climatic changes which can eventually lead to desertification of the territories.

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It is known that approximately 110 countries of the world are currently under threat of the mentioned above issue (Bisaro et al. 9). Every year, humanity loses 12 million hectares of land that could produce up to 20 million tons of grain annually (Bisaro et al. 9). Consequently, the possible income lost due to desertification and dreadful state of land is approximately $43 billion yearly (Bisaro et al. 9). The most dangerous state of affairs can be observed in arid lands. Here, the soils are predominantly unbalanced, the plant life is insuffiient, and the environment is for the most part severe; thusly, desertification occurs (Symeonakis et al. 1571).

Lastly, it should be stated that droughts and loss of land productivity are the main factors driving people to move from arid regions to other areas. The influx of migrants can negatively affect the population’s ability to use natural resources sustainably (Symeonakis et al. 1571). It can exacerbate the problem of urban overpopulation and, due to the competition for the right to use scarce natural resources, cause domestic, social, ethnic and political conflicts.

Existing Strategies of Coping with the Challenge

The humanity should remember that there is an inextricable relationship between livelihoods, a rich ecosystem of bio diversity and soil. Fertile soil is capable of giving life, and its state basically depends on the cultivation methods. These influence the yield, and the quality of food individuals consume, as well as the mechanisms of interaction with ecosystems. People’s growing dependence on ecosystems means that by improving the fertility of the soil, humanity should thereby improve the quality of their lives (Fleskens and Stringer 2). Therefore, it is necessary to promote the development of the biodiversity of ecosystems which are an inexhaustible natural storehouse of stocks and services which have not been discovered yet by mankind for the future generations.

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The biggest challenge of desertification consists in the fact that the process cannot be turned back: one can only try to stop it or do everything possible so that it does not develop. That is why it is a global problem of mankind, which affects each country in a particular way. Nevertheless, no matter the state, it always has negative consequences. People from arid regions are forced to move to other places because of the shortage of food that arises from the degradation of soils, which leads to serious social and economic consequences. In order to avoid this, every person should use rationally all the resources that nature gives them because a serious change in one component, for example, a forest or a vegetation cover, inevitably leads to a change in the rest, and this can result in many disasters including desertification.

The international community makes many attempts to succeed in solving the problem; however, these measures still do not provide an exact guarantee that the threat will be fully stopped. One should improve the governance structures to address this issue, and it is significant to reconsider the funding spent on the technological advancements that can help to tackle the issue. In 1994, the General Assembly proclaimed 17 June as World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought with the aim to raise awareness to the problems of drought and desertification (Bisaro et al. 9). This measure has been relevantly successful; however, it cannot fight the consequences of the phenomenon to the fullest extent.

How It Works

Unfortunately, at present, the European Union has not yet come to a single decision regarding the policy to protect soil although the processes of soil degradation are significant, and this problem has been under consideration for several decades. Nevertheless, some regions have adopted separate documents on soil conservation (the European Union’s Alpine Convention) (Bestelmeyer et al. 30). They have done that realizing that the increase in the population and the growing demand for food can lead to the intensification of land cultivation. Under such a scenario, desertification and degradation of ecosystems in dry lands will jeopardize the prospects for improving people’s well-being and, possibly, negate the success achieved in the development of some regions (Bestelmeyer et al. 30). In order to make a reasonable choice, individuals need to understand the consequences of alternative actions or inaction. It means that possible development scenarios should have been developed and presented in the form of verbal descriptions and illustrated with the help of numerical indicators demonstrating what the future may be in this or that case.

To continue, strategies that lead to unsustainable use of resources and a lack of supporting infrastructure are among the main causes of land degradation (Brandt and Geeson 121). Accordingly, it turns public policy and physical infrastructure into useful tools for solving the problem. Special attention is paid to agriculture as it can play both a positive and negative role depending on how it is done (Bisaro et al. 9). This, in turn, depends on available socioeconomic resources, the conduct of policy and the quality of management. Local institutions, such as community policymakers, that determine land use patterns and social networks, help prevent desertification allowing individuals to make better use of eco-system by increasing access to land, capital, labor and technology.

Lastly, a multi-country development project was implemented during 2010-2012 as a part of the activities of the Central Asian Countries Initiative for Land Management Program (generally abbreviated to CACILM). It is aimed at enhancing various states’ capacity to address problems related to land degradation. The main objectives of the project are to integrate the principles of sustainable land management (generally abbreviated to SLM) into national policies and legislation, and effective mobilization of resources for implementation.

Examination of Alternative Solutions

There are a number of possible solutions to the issue of desertification and its consequences that can be developed and implemented. Firstly, it is necessary to introduce the drought-resistant varieties of agricultural plants (D’Odorico et al. 331). Among the agro- and technical measures in combating droughts, the development of proper crop rotations with pure vapors in arid and occupied pairs in better humid areas is of great importance. Pure steam (with backstage) in arid regions is equated to fields with water-charging irrigation (watering to create reserves (charging) of water in the soil).

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To continue, the priority task of geo-ecological research is the development of measures aimed at restoring the natural potential of lands lost as a result of natural and/or anthropogenic factors. Bio resource potential (productivity of natural vegetation cover) is reduced as a result of desertification (Symeonakis et al. 1571). To overcome the problem, one can turn to the main deep plowing that is the most effective when working on soils with a highly compacted sub-plow horizon (chestnut, solo nets, etc.). As for the soils located on the slopes, special methods of tillage, regulating surface run-off should be implemented. They include plowing across the slope, contour plowing (horizontally), and techniques that change the micro relief of the arable land. To reduce the evaporation of moisture, the soil in pairs and broad-row crops should be kept in a loose state, preventing the formation of a soil crust (D’Odorico et al. 331). To this end, harrowing, cultivation, row-spacing, etc. are used. Of great importance are also techniques for the destruction of weeds, regulation of snow melting, fertilization, pre-plant preparation of soil and sowing in the shortest possible time. It is effective to combine sowing of winter crops that use autumn precipitation well and are resistant to spring-summer droughts, sowing early spring cereals that need precipitation in the first half of summer, as well as corn, millet, sorghum and other late crops that use sediments of the second half of the summer and are relatively easy to bear the spring drought (Brandt and Geeson 121).


The fight against desertification and related economic challenges in dry lands is likely to be more effective when using an active approach to management. With its implementation, management of economic resources should take into account changes and raise the resilience of ecosystems, which also contributes to increasing the protection of society from the problems created by desertification. As a result, measures such as adaptation to climate change and the refusal to expand irrigated areas may together lead to a slowdown in the rate of desertification. It should be remembered that the benefits of this approach can only fully manifest themselves after a while because, first, it is necessary to introduce and consolidate the relevant changes in the development of society and its ability to master new approaches to land use. In contrast, with a reactive approach to management, the current pressure on eco-system services (climate change, overgrazing and large-scale irrigation) is likely to remain at the same level or even increase, leading to further desertification. It means that to stop the desertification, it is significant to take active measures which are expected to be dictated by the international community.

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Globalization plays a significant positive role in modern world. It creates a fruitful integration of people, countries, and organizations that can benefit everyone. However, for some individuals globalization may also become a tool to gain the amount of power that can be compared to such of a country. These consequences of globalization are discussed in […]

Article Critique: “Advertising’s Fifteen Basic Appeals” by Jib Fowles

The current essay presents a critical analysis of an article entitled “Advertising’s Fifteen Basic Appeals” by Jib Fowles who has researched hundreds of contemporary commercials with a view to coming up with a list of basic appeals found in advertisements that are aimed at convincing consumers to buy this or that product or at least […]

Satire in Moliere’s Tartuffe and Jonathan Swift’s A Modest Proposal

Satire is known to be a specific genre of literature, which may occasionally use graphical and performing arts in order to ridicule society and stimulate its self-improvement. Due to the fact that social criticism is the main objective of satire, it frequently applies repartee combined with dark sarcasm in order to depict and vividly demonstrate […]

Appalachian State University

Located in the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina, Appalachian State University has a breathtaking location. Moreover, the university offers challenging academic program, and active campus life. In fact, Appalachian State University combines attributes of a small library college with parameters of a large research university. The university is widely known for its affordability and […]

Optimal Pollution

William F. Baxter (1975), in his People or Penguins: The Case for Optimal Pollution focuses his concept on limited environmentalism. William Baxter outlines that as humanists, we are obligated to promote and stand for the goodness of mankind. The basis of Baxter’s argument is the anthropocentric view : “We should not and have no moral […]

Wireless Technology Essay

Wireless technology refers to the type of telecommunication, in which electromagnetic waves are used instead of wires for transmitting the signals over a part or entire communication path (Firestone 2009). The earliest form of wireless technology was used to send telegraphic signals across the waters and was integrated into the passenger, and cargo ships after […]

Dramaturgical Analysis of Occupational Performances

During interaction with other people, an individual would change his or her settings in order to regulate the impression that the people may have. On the other hand, those people that the individual is interacting with will try to conceive as well as obtain any information from the individual interacting with them. In essence, all […]

Swatch, Mountain Dew, Coke Case, Disney and Rose – Case Study

The Swatch Case Study What choices did customers have before arrival of the Swatch and how were these choices positioned? Before the Swatch entered the market, few changes have occurred, which actually impacted the positions of the companies within the global market. First of all, after the introduction of quartz many foreign countries started to […]

Gillette Company Analisys

Nowadays, many businesses face a number of problems and/or challenges that are to be managed in order to become sustainable within both the market segment and the industry as a whole. One of such challenges is the problem of dealing with the aspects of business merging and/or the economic worldwide changes. The most important changes […]

Starbucks Analysis

Starbucks is a globally recognized company that specializes in the production and sales of premium roast coffee and other special beverages. It is currently the largest coffeehouse in the world whereby it is known not only for selling high-quality coffee. It also provides a sophisticated lifestyle, which is as a result of its enticing aroma, […]

How Starbucks Changed Supply Chain Management

How was the Starbucks Company was Founded and by Who? The essence of Starbucks is about roasting the highest quality whole bean coffee, but this is not the whole story. According to Starbucks, people today believe in two things: making a contribution to the world and drinking a cup of coffee with friends and family. […]

Online Learning vs. Learning in Traditional Classrooms

Being in a traditional classroom provides students with an opportunity to experience freedom and interact with the world. Putting a student in a room with a computer means that the student will never be able to bond with the professor and other students. When studying online, it becomes difficult for students to clear their doubts. […]

Nescafe Case Study Analysis

The Nescafe case study identifies a number of problems that differ in their priority but, nevertheless, need to be addressed by the company. First, it is the growing scarcity of raw resources for coffee production and, as a result, the growing price. According to Alvarez and Petty, the coffee industry has witnessed dramatic swings in […]

Martin Luther King’s Speech

Martin Luther King’s speech “I Have a Dream” is more than half a century old but it is still a widely studied example of good rhetoric and persuasive methods. Martin Luther King was known as a powerful orator; all the more he had to use his speaking talents to engage as more people as possible […]

The Impact of the iPad on High School Education

High school students received iPad in winter. It is expected that these devices are stored in the school. “All of the devices were insured. Six iPad were damaged during the first two weeks from the beginning of the program, “- said Stephen Braunius, Director of Learning Technology. None has been lost or stolen. Only two […]

Coca-Cola Strategic Analysis

The Coca-Cola Company, established in 1892, is the world’s largest beverage company with the market capitalization of $168.7 billion being one of the top 5 valuable brands as of November 2014 (Forbes, n.d.). The company manufactures primarily carbonated soft drinks (CSD) as well as still beverages, tea, coffee and energy sports drinks. Operating in more […]

Executive Summary of iPhone Brand

In September 2013, Apple Inc. launched iPhone 5s, a new model of a smartphone. At that time, the company managed to introduce 2 iPhones simultaneously. 5s to suit its main target audience and  5c model as an attempt to occupy a lower price range market share. The distinctive feature of the 5s model was so […]

NHL Marketing

Hockey will always be regarded as a game that gives fans the second chance of joy, even when the team is painfully eliminated. The fans just need to be willing to battle and to be truly committed to a relationship with the team. In addition, with the spirit of great love, the National Hockey League […]

Analyzing Amazon’s and eBay’s Strategies

Attaining sustainable competitive advantage is the goal of every company. Therefore, organizational changes are crucial developmental processes in every corporation. Similar to globalization, technology plays a significant role in the developmental process of today’s companies. Nowadays, technological development, particularly caused by the World Wide Web and dot com, is a sure way to attain valuable […]

Comparative Analysis of Consonants in Arabic and English

Arabic and English are two widespread languages which are vividly used by people all over the world. Arabic is used in all the Muslim countries as it is the language of Koran. It is the official language in 26 countries, including Morocco, Iraq, Egypt, Israel, Sudan, Syria, Lebanon, Algeria, Mauritania, etc. English is the official […]

Oligopoly: Alibaba vs. Amazon

According to monopoly, both companies are aimed at expanding to global market, while according to oligopoly, the companies have the opportunity to control the industry. With the help of oligopoly term, considering economic forecast, companies’ current market condition, government regulations, industry and history overview of companies, opportunities and issues the companies face, entry impact, productivity, […]

Social Aspects of Television

Before the 1940s, the entertainment industry had separate business sectors that rarely overlapped. If one wanted to see a movie, one could go to the corner cinema. If one wanted to hear the latest music, one could only turned on the radio. However, with the introduction of the television in the late 1940s, one could […]

Tuition Reimbursement

There are numerous advantages that accrue to an employee as a result of working in a particular organization. Some of these advantages have no direct impact on the success of a company. However, there are some that have a direct impact on the organization’s success. A perfect example of a mutual benefit for a company […]

Private Teaching

This topic is worth the research, because private teaching is a worldwide activity, with both positive and negative impacts. It exists in developed countries such as Canada, South Korea, and Singapore, as well as in developing countries such as Zimbabwe, Kenya and Vietnam (Bray, 2003). However, this research acknowledges that private teaching has its advantages, […]

A Detailed Characteristic and Financial Analysis of Financial Statements of IKEA

Analysis of financial statements is a process that allows assessing the past and current financial position and results of operation of any multinational business organization. The main goal of the analysis of financial statements is assessment of financial results of the company’s operations. On the example of Swedish company IKEA we will consider the financial […]

The Difference of Language

Language refers to verbal, biological innate, physical, and vital form of communication to human beings. According to behaviorists, it is a learned behavior that involving a response and stimulus. Poynton suggested that language is a verbal behavior that includes body movements, gestures or sign language, and spoken words (15). Therefore, language is a crucial aspect […]

Knowledge Management Analysis of the Organization

The ever increasing globalization has emerged as a threat to organizations’ knowledge management. As a result, size, nature and scope of the organization are vital to the success of how it manages its knowledge. The floor space, client base served, net assets owned by the organization, sales volume and others, measures the size of the […]

General Motors (Vehicle Manufacturer)

General Motors, known as GM, is a world leading vehicle manufacturing company based in the USA. The company is involved in the development, designing, manufacture and marketing of automotive products on a global scale (Pelfrey, 2006). The company remains a force to reckon with in the present day auto industry. Although the company has adapted […]

UK House Building: Analysis From The Perspective Of Porter’s Five Forces Framework

The UK house building industry is a rapidly developing sphere due to the diversity in directions and specializations. There are many large industries, such as Barratt Homes, Taylor Wimpey and Persimmon Homes, that can be characterized by exceptional quality, broad customer base and quality of the construction. However, all of them have different emphases and […]

Microsoft Corporation

Introduction There are certain companies in the world that has changed the history of humanity and Microsoft Corporation is one of them. Almost every business organization and private home employs its software and hardware. Nevertheless, the way to success has not been easy since it has undergone different transformations in order to hone skills and […]

Costco Wholesale

Costco Wholesale is the leading warehouse retailer and the second biggest general retailer in the United States of America. The company deals with the sale of household goods, foods, and general merchandise, including appliances. These products are sold by the company in bulk and at greatly discounted prices. The Company is facing competition from BJ’s […]

External Environment Analysis of Burjeel Hospital

Burjeel Hospital is situated at the center of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. It was opened in 2012 with the aim of bringing a positive paradigm shift in the delivery of private healthcare. Burjeel Hospital is one of the best medical facilities that provides quality and advanced medical facilities (Burjeel Hospital 2012). UAE […]

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