Analysis essays

free essayNowadays, companies in the fashion industry should quickly respond to the changing fashion trends, new environments, and customers’ demands. Similarly to the other companies in the fashion industry, Zara recognizes this fact and develops a business model, where speed and decentralized decision-making are essential. However, the company’s outdated IT system does not allow to effectively conduct this business model. This paper consists of several parts. First, it provides a background analysis of IT project upgrade and justification of proposed solution. Second, it describes work breakdown structure of the project as well as responsibilities and roles of the project team. Third, the paper explores project risks and proposes the strategy of their mitigation. Moreover, the paper provides a detailed project schedule costs and budget estimation, and describes change control procedures.

Project Background Analysis

According with the analysis provided by McAfee et al. (2007), Zara has an outdated IT infrastructure that requires significant improvements as information and communications technologies are vital for Zara’s business. The key element of its infrastructure is its POS terminal system, which ensures the work of Zara’s stores all over the world. There are several areas on which the POS system focuses. First, it collects information from the company’s stores regarding the consumers’ needs. This information flows daily to the head office databases, where the analysis is conducted. The next area of POS terminals operations is based on providing product information and inventory management. As a result, thousands of Zara’s manufacturing locations are able to design a garment with available stocks.

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However, the outdated POS terminals infrastructure lowers the efficiency of the company’s business. The availability of new information and communication technologies provides various opportunities for improving the current state of Zara’s IT infrastructure. Thereby, the proposed project type is its technology migration, which is based on new operating system and new equipment for Zara’s POS terminal structure.

The proposed operation system for the company’s POS terminals is a web-based platform developed by VendHQ (2016). Comparing with the other platforms, this one is more flexible since it can be run on any computer having access to the Internet. Moreover, this web-based software does not require any software installations or updates. Additionally, cloud-technologies provide a high level of security since data is based on secure servers in multiple data centers, which also provide real-time backups. Moreover, VendHQ POS terminals’ software was designed especially for retail stores and allows managing sales, inventory, customers, and rewards (VendHQ 2016).

Business Justification

The POS software provided by VendHQ has various advantages as compared with the other similar software. First, it is easy to use as well as accept payments and process sales as it provides various operations. For instance, it provides opportunities for time-saving features due to the inventory management opportunities. Further, the VendHQ software for POS terminals includes various marketing tools, staff management, tools for customer data gathering, and thus allows automation of the other processes related with stores management. Additionally, the vendor provides 24/7 customer support. Moreover, VendHQ software provides opportunities for effectively managing goods and sorting them by images, prices, and variations of color and size (Software Advice 2016). Besides, the new software will allow Zara reach online sales and sell its products both on online and offline channels without creating extra admin work. The chosen multi-outlet plan provided by VendHQ (2016) costs only $199per month (in case of annual purchase). This plan allows conducting multi‑outlet management, developing central customer database, and collecting outlet reporting. Moreover, it is developed for unlimited users and product numbers (VendHQ 2016).

Since it is hard to estimate clear financial benefits from implementing new POS system, the NPV analysis will conduct the cash outflow required for the project implementation. As the table 12 shows, the total cost for the first year of project implementation is €1,082,714. This value includes annual fee for the multi-outlet plan for VendHQ software, fees for priority phone support, hardware purchase, administrative costs, and costs for staff training (Table 12). Most of these costs are required only for the first year of project implementation, and only fee for the multi-outlet plan for VendHQ software and fees for priority phone support will remain the same during the next years. Additionally, it was assumed that the cost of priority phone support and annual fees for software license will increase by 1% each year. Since the discount rate was assumed at 5%, the present value of the project costs is €1,035,674. Additionally, annual maintaining costs for the new hardware were assumed as 20%. Thereby, table 1 demonstrates the cash outflow for the three-year period of the project functioning.

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According to the company’s annual report in 2015, its sales comprised €20,900 million, while the net income was €2,882 million (Inditex 2015). Moreover, the annual growth rate for Zara’s sales was 8.67%, whereas for Zara’s net income, it was 8.17% over the last five years (Inditex 2015). Since marketing costs are usually calculated in relation to the total company’s net income, the project NPV analysis will be conducted in response to Zara’s net income forecast (McAfee et al. 2007). Therefore, it is assumed that during the next three years, Zara’s net income will continue growing with the rate of 8.17% by each year (Table 1).

Table 1. NPV analysis.

Year Cash out-flow, € Cash in-flow, € Net cashflow, €
1 1 082 714.68 3 117 483 794,55 3 116 401 079,87
2 202 538.73 3 372 208 608,36 3 372 006 069,63
3 404 564.12 3 647 746 595,57 3 647 342 031,45
NPV 9 177 221 116.61

Source: made by the author on the base of VendHQ (2016).

Table 1 demonstrates that the total project investments value for the next three years is €1,689,817.54. Since the first-year investments in new POS equipment valued only for 0.03% from Zara’s net income in 2015 and project expenditures during the next years will decrease while the company’s net revenue will grow, it is evident that the project is beneficial for the company.

Project Objectives

The main project goal is to develop a sustainable IT system for Zara’s stores, thereby increasing the efficiency of its business operations. The new POS system will allow increasing inventory control, reducing merchandise shrinkage, and improving the company’s marketing. Additionally, the upgraded POS system will provide network accommodation within Zara’s stores and across the company. As a result, stores’ managers will be able to immediately discover the theoretical inventory of the other stores and avoid phone calls and the other time-wasting procedures conducted in order to get additional goods to the store. Thus, it will improve the company’s capability and will reduce the risk of low product availability.

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Assumptions and Constraints

While developing the project plan, it was assumed that Zara’s vendor will change its ancient operating system, and therefore the company will need to choose another operating system for its POS terminals or even change the whole hardware system. Additionally, while calculating the NPV of the project, it was assumed that the discount rate for the cash outflow is 5% during the next three years. Finally, in order to estimate future project costs, it was assumed that the fees for licensed fees software will increase by 1% each year.

Work Breakdown Structure

Personnel Table

To ensure consistent upgrade of the POS system in all company’s stores, it is necessary to develop a personnel table, which will describe the following: (a) the role of each member of the project team, which identifies his/her function in the project; (b) a team, to which a person was assigned; (c) workers’ responsibilities; and (d) competency, which refers to a set of skills necessary for successful project implementation. The key roles of the project personnel are the following: project manager, executive sponsor, project sponsor, project board, supplier-side project manager, project team member, project coordinator, systems developer, system administrator, and program manager. These roles were divided into three groups: planning team, development team, and system team, which are responsible for different project stages (Tables 2, 3, and 4).

Table 2 includes all necessary information regarding the project team members. A project manager is a person responsible for managing and dealing with the project. He/she ensures that that the project is delivered on time. Besides, a worker occupying this position is responsible for the budget and that the required quality standards are fulfilled. Moreover, a project manager handles relationships with the other groups of persons engaged in the project implementation (Table 2). An executive sponsor acts as a visible champion of the project, while a project sponsor acts as an in-house champion of the project (Table 2). The former is a high-ranking top management team member that is an ultimate decision-maker. On the other hand, the latter works closely with the project manager. He/she is a senior staff member, whose area of responsibility will be directly affected by the POS system upgrade (Table 2). He/she is also a leader of the project board, which is a group of management grade personnel responsible for overseeing the progress of the project and reacting to any strategic complications (Table 2). As tables 2 and 3 show, a project manager, an executive sponsor, a project sponsor, and the project board belong both to planning and developing teams. Besides, a system developer and a system administrator contribute to technical strategy, policy and procedure, and are thus members of the planning team.

Table 2. Personnel table of planning team

Role Responsibilities Competency (Required knowledge and skills)
Project manager 1) Manages and leads the project team

2) Recruits project staff.

3) Develops project plans.

1) Leadership skills.

2) Strong technical background.

3) Definition of a project and the triple constraints.

4) Communication skills.

Executive Sponsor


1) Approves changes to the IT system.

2) Makes key organizational/commercial decisions for the project.

1) Strategic vision.

2)  Proactive issue resolution.

Project sponsor 1) Communicates the project’s goals throughout the organization.

2) Approves the project budget.

3) Leads the Project Board.

1) Leadership skills.

2) Knowledge of the store system requirements.

3)  Proactive issue resolution.

4)  Ability to find quick creative solutions.

Project Board 1) Approves POS system implementation strategies and plans, project scope, and milestones.

2) Allocates resources to support project implementation.

3) Resolves strategic and policy issues.

4) Advises on strategic partnerships.

Familiarity with Zara’s IT system.


Systems developer Contributes to the technical strategy, policy, and procedure. 1) Decent computer skills and good writing skills.

2) Strong technical knowledge.

System administrator Contributes to the technical strategy, policy, and procedure. Technical knowledge.

Source: made by the author on the base of Newton (2015) and University of Glasgow (2015).

Further, a supplier-side project manager, a project team, a project coordinator, and a systems developer belong to the development team. A supplier-side project manager is a representative of the VendHQ responsible for managing supplier-side input to the project (Table 3). The project team comprises Zara’s employees who are actively engaged in the different stages of the project during its lifetime. Thus, the responsibilities of the project team members vary depending on the project stage. A project coordinator provides administrative support to the project manager (Table 3). Since the process of upgrading the POS system within the whole Zara organization is a large cross-functional project, the role of project coordinator is necessary for ensuring the efficient project implementation. Further, the systems developer works closely with the project manager on defining and executing development requirements.

Table 3. Personnel table of the development team

Role Responsibilities Competency (Required knowledge and skills)
Project manager 1) Monitors project progress and performance.

2) Provides status reports to the project sponsor.

3) Approves the final system design specification.

4) Identifies staff training needs and manages staff training programs.

5) Provides regular status reports to the Project Board.

1) Effective Progress Reporting.

2) Earned Value Management.

3) Risks identification and reporting.

4) Negotiation.

Executive sponsor 1) Provides additional funds to the POS system upgrade.

2) Approves project deliverables.

Forward-looking course correction
Project sponsor Ensures the availability of resources for IT changes. Negotiation
Project Board 1) Drives and manages change through the organization.

2)  Ensures communication with the other top managers of the company.

1) Communication skills.

2) Organizational skills.

Supplier-side project manager 1) Ensures the effective use of supplier resources.

2) Manages the production and approval of the supplier side of the budget.

3) Develops communication within the project team and the organization and supplier.

4) Produces and monitors financial reports.

5) Is involved in managing the supplier staff assigned to the project on a daily basis.

6) Encourages the transfer of product knowledge and skills to the appropriate staff within the organization.

1) Organizational and communication skills.

2) Good at taking initiative.

3) Sociability.

4) Effective coordination skills.


Project team members 1)   Develop project documentation and analyze current and future POS systems.

2)   Identify and map project information needs.

3)   Provide staff training.

4)   Provide functional expertise in an administrative process.

1)    Experienced in IT system work.

2)    Good team players.

3)    Communication skills.

Project coordinator 1) Manages support project functions, such as planning, quality management, internal communication, and reporting.

2) Produces the following reports to the Project Board: milestone summary, summary of costs incurred, project issues, risks, and benefits.

3) Manages data security.

4) Provides assistance with the production of user documentation and testing.

1) Coordination skills.

2) IT knowledge.


Systems developer 1) Ensures data migration.

2) Provides interface integration with the other systems.

3) Develops technical strategy, policy and procedure.

1) Cloud-based POS system knowledge.

2) Responsibility.

Source: made by the author on the base of Newton (2015) and University of Glasgow (Project roles and responsibilities 2015).

Finally, the systems team includes systems developer and system administrator (Table 4). A system administrator is responsible for managing and supporting Zara’s IT system environment.

Table 4. Systems team.

Role Responsibilities Competency (Required knowledge and skills)
Systems developer 1) Produces technical documentation.

2) Develops report on progress/issues.

1) Cloud-based POS system knowledge.

2) Reporting and presentation skills.

System administrator 1) POS system environment management and support.

2) Management and support of stores’ databases.

3) Development of technical testing programs.

4) Development of technical documentation according to quality standards.

1) Cloud-based POS system knowledge.

2) Responsibility.


Source: made by the author on the base of Newton (2015) and University of Glasgow (Project roles and responsibilities 2015).

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Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

Work breakdown structure (WBS) is shown in table 5. The main elements of the WBS are the following: the new POS system development; acquisition of hardware and software; store engineering; the new POS system installation; and store staff training.

Table 5. Work breakdown structure of POS system upgrading in Zara stores.

POS system upgrading
Requirements Acquisition Store Engineering System installation Training a store staff
–  Develop technical requirements for the upgraded POS system.

–  Develop internal requirements for the upgraded POS system.

–  Develop external requirements for the upgraded POS system

–  Compare available software and choose the best variant.

–   Sign a contract with a software provider about purchasing the POS system.

–  Compare available hardware and choose the best variant.

–  Purchase necessary POS hardware package, which seamlessly works with new POS operating system.

–  Complete engineering plans.

–  Develop a schedule the construction process.

–  Complete the training area.

–  Install check-stands.


–  Create a plan of store system.

–  Order the store system.

–  Develop a schedule of new POS system installation.

–  Install new server system.

–  Conduct a test of the store system.

–  Install new POS equipment.

–  Conduct a test of new POS equipment.

–  Create a network between the stores and inside the store.

–  Provide database migration.

–  Develop monitoring system.

–  Develop training materials.

–  Develop a schedule of staff training sessions.

–  Complete the store training system.

–  Complete the checker training.

–  Complete the total POS management training.

Responsibility Assignment Matrix

On the basis of the WBS and personnel table, a responsibility assignment matrix was developed. To describe the role of each person in the project, the following symbols were taken: R – responsible; A – accountable, C – consulted; and I – informed. Therefore, in the table 6, the letter R refers to the role that executes the activities to achieve the task, the letter A refers to the roles that own the quality of the deliverable and sign off on work, the letter C describes the roles that provide subject matter expertise, and the letter I describes roles that receive information about the task.

Table 6. Responsibility assignment matrix for the requirements stage

Function Project manager Executive sponsor, Project sponsor, and Project Board Supplier-side project manager Project team members, and Project coordinator Systems developer
Develop technical requirements for the upgraded POS system.


Develop internal requirements for the upgraded POS system.


Develop external requirements for the upgraded POS system A I I R R

Table 7. Responsibility assignment matrix for the acquisition stage

Function Project manager Executive sponsor Project sponsor, Project Board Supplier-side project manager Project team members, Project coordinator Systems developer, System administrator
Compare available software and choose the best variant.


Sign a contract with a software provider about purchasing the POS system. R A I A I I
Compare available hardware and choose the best variant. A I I C R C
Purchase the necessary POS hardware package, which seamlessly works with new POS operating system. R A I A I I

Table 8. Responsibility assignment matrix for the store engineering stage

Function Project manager Executive sponsor, Project sponsor, Project Board, Supplier-side project manager Project team members Project coordinator Systems developer, System administrator
Complete engineering plans. A I R A C
Develop a schedule of the construction process. A I R A C
Complete the training area A I C A R
Install check-stands A I C A R

Table 9. Responsibility assignment matrix for the system installation stage

Function Project manager Executive sponsor, Project sponsor, Project Board Supplier-side project manager Project team members, Project coordinator Systems developer System administrator
Create a plan of store system. A I C R A R
Order the store system.


Develop a schedule of new POS system installation A I C R C C
Install a new server system.


Conduct a test of the store system.


Install new POS equipment. A I C C A R
Conduct a test of new POS equipment.


Create a network between the stores and inside the store.


Provide database migration.


Develop monitoring system A I C R R C

Table 10. Responsibility assignment matrix for the training of a store staff stage

Function Project manager Executive sponsor, Project sponsor, Project Board Supplier-side project manager Project team members Project coordinator Systems developer, System administrator
Develop training materials A I R R A C
Develop a schedule of staff training sessions A I C R A C
Complete the store training system. A I C R A C
Complete the checker training. A I C R A C
Complete the total POS management training. A I C R A C

How It Works

Project Risk Assessment

Risk Analysis

While implementing a project of POS system upgrade, several risks may appear. First, Zara’s project managers may not achieve the forecasted project benefits. As a result, the company may spend a significant amount of money and time, and achieve lower benefits than planned. Second, there is a risk of damaging reputation. In case of unsuccessful implementation of the new POS terminals system, the company’s customers will be dissatisfied. Consequently, they may lose their loyalty to the company and move to the other stores with a more convenient purchase system. Additionally, there are legal risks of implementing software. The company should consider privacy issues that will appear while managing the private data of its employees and customers. Further, there is a risk of schedule slippage. While developing and implementing a project, responsible persons may procrastinate, and thus the project will require more time for completing than it was forecasted. Besides, the actual project costs may overrun the estimated project budget. It may happen in case of wrong budget cost estimation. Finally, there is a risk of increased complexity or dependencies. For instance, due to operator error or cyber-attack, some parts of new POS system may be damaged. As a result, the implementation of the new IT system will be paused and Zara will lose a significant amount of money. Additionally, the new system design may not conform to POS software requirements, and therefore the company will have to redesign the whole system.

Preliminary Strategies for Risk Mitigation

To successfully deal with the risks described in the previous section, it is necessary to develop an appropriate preliminary risk mitigation strategy. First, a project manager should conduct a detailed analysis of advantages and disadvantages, namely by using the SWOT analysis technique. It will allow developing a clear picture of project results and focusing on the critical areas of the potential risks. Besides, the company should develop an alternative to the given project, thereby allowing to mitigate the possible risks of POS system drawbacks or damage. Additionally, a project manager should take care of developing a project according with the schedule. Thus, it will be necessary to provide weekly and daily reports about the actual project results. In case of a necessity to deal with any negative aspects, a project team will be able to quickly react to them. Moreover, there is a necessity to develop an appropriate cybersecurity system, which will allow the company’s IT managers successfully deal with any cyberattacks on Zara’s IT system. Finally, before purchasing any element of the new system, there is a necessity to ensure that the company’s hardware can be used for installing new POS system software.

Project Schedule

A project schedule was developed on the basis of the WBS. The purpose of the project schedule is to provide clear timeframes and milestones for people engaged in the project. Thus, it will ensure understanding of project processes for all involved staff. The following table provides the implementation schedule for the high-level milestones of the POS system upgrade.

Table 11. Project schedule.

Milestone Scheduled Completion Date
Develop technical requirements for the upgraded POS system.


Develop internal requirements for the upgraded POS system.


Develop external requirements for the upgraded POS system 2017/01/15
Compare available software and choose the best variant.


Sign a contract with a software provider about purchasing the POS system. 2017/01/23
Compare available hardware and choose the best variant. 2017/01/20
Purchase the necessary POS hardware package, which seamlessly works with new POS operating system. 2017/01/30
Complete engineering plans. 2017/01/25
Develop a schedule the construction process. 2017/01/25
Complete the training area 2017/02/10
Install check-stands 2017/02/05
Create a plan of store system. 2017/01/20
Order the store system.


Develop a schedule of new POS system installation 2017/01/15
Install a new server system.


Conduct a test of the store system.


Install new POS equipment. 2017/02/07
Conduct a test of the new POS equipment. 2017/02/21
Create a network between the stores and inside the store.


Provide database migration.


Develop monitoring system 2017/03/03
Develop training materials 2017/03/01
Develop a schedule of staff training sessions 2017/03/01
Complete the store training system. 2017/03/10
Complete the checker training. 2017/03/14
Complete the total POS management training. 2017/03/20

Cost Estimates and Budget

Budget and cost estimates were provided on the basis of information submitted by the VendHQ (2016) about its pricing strategy. Thus, it is proposed to purchase a multi-outlet plan for the POS software provided by the VendHQ (2016). In 2016, VendHQ provided this software package for $199, which can be expressed as €191.21 (Currency converter: EUR to USD 2016). Table 12 includes budget estimation for Zara’s POS system upgrade. While conducting a cost analysis, it was assumed that administrative costs will require around 5% of the total value of software and hardware, and staff training costs will require around 3% of their value (Table 12).

Table 12. Annual project budget for Zara’s stores

Item Value, €
Annual fee for the multi-outlet plan for VendHQ software 2294.52
Priority phone support 219.07
Hardware 1,000,000.00
Administrative costs 50,125.68
Staff training 30,075.41
Total 1,082,715.68

Source: made by the author on the basis of VendHQ (2016).

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Change Control

The purpose of change control is to provide the project stakeholders (manager, sponsors, Project Board, project team, etc.) with the standard process for managing changes on Zara’s POS system upgrading project. Thus, the staff engaged in the project will be able to manage change requests while ensuring the high level of schedule and plan control.

To ensure efficient change control, the following procedures of each request should be conducted. First, it is necessary to identify and document the required change. Second, the project team member should verify whether the change is valid and requires management. Third, a manager should analyze and record the following elements of change: cost, schedule, and required sources. Further, it is necessary to decide whether the change should be executed. After that, a manager should take action and execute change if necessary. His/her actions should also include revision of project plans. Finally, manager should verify that the change action is complete and needs no change request.


Zara stores require a significant upgrade of their POS system. The paper has described necessary elements that will allow company’s managers successfully implement a project focused on the improvements of the stores’ IT system. On the basis of the analysis of various alternatives, it was proposed to implement cloud-based POS terminals software provided by VendHQ Company. According to the cost estimation, it was assumed that the annual budget of implementing the new POS system in Zara’s stores will require €1,689,817.54. The NPV analysis proves that such investment is beneficial for the company and Zara should reinvest only 0.03% from its net income collected in 2015 in order to start the project in 2017.

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Established in 1999, Zappos has developed into a leading online shoe and clothing company. The company’s growth remained attributed to the increasing need in the market for the localization of products from one provider. In this essence, the company sought to provide a platform, whereby customers could access shoes and apparel from various designers in […]

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Eicher Motors Limited (EML) is a manufacturing firm that has been in operation for over forty years now. This production giant operates currently in ten countries across the global markets. This firm was established in India in the year 1982, and has managed to sign several businesses strategic partnerships with international firms including the American […]

Nickie Minaj – Anaconda (Analytical Essay)

Nickie Minaj’s “Anaconda” video looks as a seemingly common hip hop video where a bevy of pretty semi-naked girls prop up a similarly semi-naked singer in a variety of locations the main point of which to encase their beauty and different outfits. The audience might think that it is the same objectification of women it […]

What is Effective Communication?

A human being is a social creature, therefore, with communication being one of the most important aspects of his/her life. Possessing effective communication skills means not only to have be easy-going and be able to establish ‘free of stress’ relations within the workplace, but also be capable of successfully climbing the career ladder. It helps […]

Why the Animal Experimentation Is Very Essential and Quite Human

Animal testing refers to the use of animals for scientific research with the aim of discovering new drugs and other methods of advancing the human life. Today, most drugs and vaccines, which are used by people, are a result of animal experiments. The reason as to why this kind of study is very popular is […]

The Impact of e-Learning Systems on Learners

Information and communication technologies have altered people’s lives. Their daily activities strongly depend on the use of technology. There is no doubt that education plays a vital role as it helps to achieve goals in life. Technology development and access to the Internet has enhanced e-learning that is referred to as a web-based training. It […]

Food and Economic Issues

In the US, food has always been and will always be a great compromise for most foreigners living in America. It will always depend on you in terms of consuming either only chips with burgers or Greek salad with cranberry juice. It is a fact that fast food restaurants do not aim at selling healthy […]

Nike Company

Nike is the world’s leading manufacturer and supplier of sportswear and equipment. The company’s headquarters are in Oregon, United States. The company employs more than 30,000 people to carry out its global operations. 4 Points of Marketing Products Nike produces a wide range of sports shoes and apparel for people of all ages and gender. […]

The Education System in Canada

Canada is well-known not only for being the second biggest country in the world, but also for its various achievements, particularly in the area of education. The system of education can vary among the regions, but it is absolutely free of charge for the country’s inhabitants. While the primary education is not much different from […]

The National Basketball Association (NBA) Analysis

Sport is a complex multi-facet industry encompassing modern spectacles such as the winter and summer Olympics and casual pick-up basketball courts games, competitions with thousands of participants including recreational joggers and runners in the Boston marathon. People watching any sports facets behind a screen participate in the event in some way. Games remain to be […]

Linux Operating System

The operating system is a complex of interconnected software programs. Its purpose is to organize the user’s interaction with the computer and perform all other programs. The operating system acts as a bridge between computer’s equipment, executed programs, and the user. The most popular operating system in the world is Microsoft. However, in the last […]

Corporate Strategy – Comparative Analysis: Starbucks and Dunkin’ Donuts

Starbucks and Dunkin’ Donuts are the two most recognized brands in the United States’ coffee chain industry. Although both corporations have similar strategies and product offerings, their corporate strategies have a number of differences. Being comparatively younger than its competitor, Starbucks showed aggressive growth and became the largest company in the industry. Both companies have […]

Fashion Fordism as a Result of the Austerity Period in Britain

In a layman’s language, austerity can be defined as a situation in which living standards of people are reduced as a result of economic problems. In most governments, austerity policies are normally used in order to cut down the government deficit spending. According to Attfield (1999), these policies may be combined with increase in taxes […]

USFL v. NFL Case Analysis

The analyzed court case has a very interesting prehistory. Kogan (2008) considered the formation of both the National Football League (NFL) and the United States Football League (USFL). He made some conclusions as to why the USFL filed a lawsuit against the NFL in the Southern District of New York in 1986 for attempts of […]

Under Armour Case Study

Under Armour is a company founded by a football player Kevin Plank. This organization specializes in sports apparel, gears, and equipment necessary for sportsmen. Under Armour was created for the people who want to be active and physically healthy. Adidas and Nike are the major competitors of this company, and they encourage it to further […]

The Arctic and U.S. National Security

The Arctic refers to the northernmost part of the earth’s surface that lies to the north of the northern temperate area (Zellen 12). This area can be bordered by the Arctic Circle, but such confine is complicated by the fact that its latitudes vary due to the planet’s angle of inclination. There are several countries, […]

Fresh Juice Drinks Market

The world juice market began its formation in the first half of the 20th century (Márquez 2014). The production had a local nature, and export-import operations had a very limited scale. With the development of agriculture and processing industry in the countries producing fruit and vegetable goods, the production of juices, including concentrates, began increasing. […]

Analysis of the United Parcel Services

United Parcel Services (UPS) is a logistics company which offers package delivery and specialized logistics services. The company was started in 1907 by Claude Ryan and Jim Casey in Seattle, Washington. It has grown over the years to become the world’s leading parcel carrier in terms of volume and revenue, and a premier provider of […]

Monologues in Richard III

The oeuvre of William Shakespeare abounds in powerful and impressive characters that make the audience reflect upon many important issues, such as loyalty, responsibility, and meaning of life in general. In fact, this dramatist is exceptionally talented in creating both positive and negative characters. Some of his villains happen to be even more thought-provoking than […]

Food Movements and Slow Food

Food politics about the food movements and associations has been a public debate amongst the stakeholders. The food movement took off in California in the 1980s. It created a social movement that would help the farmers to get the maximum returns from their farming. Ever since, the various food movements and associations have been a […]

NASCAR – National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing

Various practices have diffused from one region to another. The events that were once local to a certain area and only practiced in that area have now been accepted in other regions through diffusion. One such event is NASCAR. NASCAR has diffused from the south, spreading and growing to be a reputable sport that many […]

Holi Festival

Religion plays an important role in every culture. Each religion has its holy days celebrated in various ways. India is one of the countries with the biggest number of gods and religious festivals, which are widely known for their colorfulness around the world. Religious holidays in India are important events in people’s lives. For instance, […]

African Americans in United States History: 1600s-1877

Slavery in America can be traced back to the period when first Africans were captured and brought to North American colony of Jamestown, Virginia. In 1619, tobacco farming was widely practiced across North America and labor was required to facilitate the production. Apparently, this made slavery to be the only option in American colonies during […]

Art and Racism

Racism requires neither explanation nor analysis. Its ineradicable slogans spread all over the world and negatively influence the minds of the society members. The existence of racism cannot be justified. It is a definitive statement that is absolute and unprovable, having all the signs of an axiom. Being available to all, though not accepted by […]

Critical Thinking: Cultural Elements and Our Daily Lives

Many cultural elements of the society influence daily lives and behavior without the slightest notice on our behalf. Accordingly, some of them might pervasively manipulate the way we accept the world. Television and car can be considered two of these common elements. Benefits and Harms of Television The television can have a positive effect on […]

Security Dilemma

The end of the Cold War has led not only to the transformation of the relations between states, but also to a review of security priorities, as well as the search for new theoretical approaches that allow to understand changes in the world. One of them offers a sociological view of international relations. The main […]

Japanese Nuclear Accident

The nuclear accident in Japan was one of the biggest environmental disasters in modern history. It was triggered by a tsunami that flooded Fukushima 1 nuclear Power Plant thus leading to a nuclear meltdown. Analysis of the Accident Nuclear power plants derive power from nuclear fission, which takes place when heavy atoms are struck by […]

Vermeer’s Hat: The Seventeenth Century and the Dawn of the Global World

Nowadays it is impossible to imagine any country existing in complete isolation from other states. We live in the world where globalization is the way of life: we eat products from other countries, watch foreign films, listen to foreign music, wear foreign clothes, and use technological devices produced abroad and take all that for granted. […]

The Problematic Relations Between China And Taiwan

On the first of October, 1949, the Chinese people obtained a great victory in the new democratic revolution and proclaimed the People’s Republic of China. Thus, Kuomintang group retreated to Taiwan Province of China. Relying on the support of foreign forces, they took a position confronting the Central Government. Thus, the question of Taiwan emerged. […]

Climate Change Essay

One of the most important international problems of the XXI century is the changing climate. There are still the skeptics who do not believe in the accuracy of the scientific data on climate change. At the same time, the fact that the climate is changing is no longer denied by any scientist. The temperature of […]

Information Retrieval System Design Implementation

Halicon International is a worldwide known multi-channel retailer, which also has online stores. It sells luxury gifts, the latest designer clothes and fashion garments for both women and men, accessories and also food. Global prestige and reputation of Halicon are built upon its brand values, which are British, Service, Sensation, Luxury and Innovation. Halicon has […]

Consumer Policy and Consumer Rights in South Korea

South Korea is a sovereign state in East Asia. Since its foundation, South Korea has come a long way of development. In the 1960s, the country was one of the poorest in the region, but now, the Republic of Korea is a developed industrial and highly urbanized state, one of the largest trading countries in […]

Social Concepts in terms of Age Discrimination and Social Stratification Theories

In modern society, the image of older adults is mostly negative. People believe that the elderly possess such traits as negativism, conservatism, inertia, stubbornness, increased vulnerability, irritability etc. In modern culture, there is an absence of traditionally accepted respectful attitude of young people to the older adults. The representatives of the young generation tend to […]

The School Uniforms

School uniforms are strongly advocated by both local and private schools; thus, more and more educational institutions in the United States adopt the practice today. On the one hand, supporters prove that school uniforms ensure a better safety, create equal conditions that mitigate socioeconomic differences and enhance children’s concentration on learning rather than on outfits. […]

Strategic Analysis of Coca-Cola (Analysis Essay)

The Coca-Cola Company deals in the manufacturing and marketing of soft drinks. It is the leading producer of beverages in the food and beverages industry globally. Due to its stability in the market for more than 100 years, Coca-Cola has become a household name. The Coca-Cola Company has traded in NYSE since the 1990s with […]

The Issue of Workforce Skills Gap

People often perceive education as the issue of their personal development or a tool for further occupation that will bring them money and decent social status. However, it is only one perspective on the subject. It is worth looking at it through the sociological imagination that allows seeing “the connection between individual experience and larger […]

Ritz-Carlton Operations

Ritz-Carlton is a brand that represents a luxury chain of hotels, as well as resorts, with properties spread across major cities and countries such as Japan, Indonesia, South Korea, the U.S., the Virgin Islands, and even Spain. It is a subsidiary of Marriot International. This case examines the processes at Ritz-Carlton, its systems, technology, leadership, […]

Rhetorical Analysis of “Social Media: Establishing Criteria for Law Enforcement Use” by Robert D. Stuart

The rapid growth of social media encourages the law enforcement to reexamine the positive and adverse effects of its usage. In the essay “Social Media: Establishing Criteria for Law Enforcement Use”, Robert D. Stuart urges the state officials and agencies to develop a conceptual framework for social media usage in regards to its potential benefits […]

How Much Language Fails to Measure Up the Richness and Complicacy of Communication

Karen Joy Fowler is the author of the mega-bestseller We Are All Completely beside Ourselves. This novel combines witty character drama and a tragic story about science, ripping readers’ hearts and electrifying their brains. Language and communication appear to be the two interlaced opposing themes presented from numerous angles. It is obvious that the ability […]

The Character of Bilbo Baggins

The Hobbit or There and Back Again is one of the most prominent works of John Tolkien and probably one of the most famous tales in the world literature. Written for Tolkien’s own children, the story is a winning combination of myths, epos, and the author’s vivid imagination. The fact that Tolkien wrote Hobbit for […]

Ideology Project: Colonialism

The previous parts of this project included a discussion of the ethical problem of enlightenment and its role in bringing about the problems related to freedom and, subsequently, colonialism. Enlightenment, which first came to attention in the 17th and 18th century, represents a form of movement that entailed the rise of promise and prospect in […]

HRM Essay: UltiPro Software vs Bullhorn

Human resource department is indispensable in any organization. It serves the central purpose of recruiting and staffing, and as such it ensures that the right people with the necessary skills are employed for the job. Due to the evolution of information technology, it has become necessary for firms to automate their human resource information systems […]

Open (OI) and Closed Innovation (CI) in Digital Creative and Cultural Industries

In 2003, it was declared that a significant number of companies and industries considerably changed their way of innovation (Galli 2011, p. 19). Various industries transformed their efforts from a Closed Innovation (CI) to an Open Innovation (OI) model. Hence, this shift appealed to scholars and practitioners. Closed Innovation Model Closed innovation is strongly internally […]

Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton

Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton represents an American politician and is currently the US presidential nominee of the Democratic Party in the elections to be held in 2016. Hillary is an influential figure and has been a part of the US political environment for a long time. Over the years, she served as Senator, First Lady, […]

The Case of the US versus Sterling

During working in an institution, all employees must understand all the human resource policies that guide the human capital development of the institution. Specifically, the policies about what involves misconduct in the workplace such as disrespect towards supervisors should be noted by the employees to ensure that they do not rub their shoulders the wrong […]

The Concept of Label and How it Negatively Affects the Society

Labels are things or terms that are used in categorizing a given group that has common characteristics. In the society, human beings label different things such as clothing brands, food products, personal items, file folders and people. When labels are used they are associated with certain type of images, connotations, stigmas, stereotypes and characteristics. Racial […]

Analysis of Strategy Implementation and Strategic Controls at the Coca-Cola Company

The performance of Coca-Cola is a significant business topic, which hides its importance in a strategic aspect. Coca-Cola is a legendary company, which has managed to develop a flexible organizational design. It focuses on several regions that have the same structure in every other one. The core of the organization has several departments, which perform […]

Tokyo Disneyland

Tokyo Disneyland is an entertainment theme park at the Tokyo Disney Resort modeled as the original U.S. Disneyland. It was the first Disneyland built outside the United States. Tokyo Disneyland consists of the following themed areas: Mickey’s Toontown, Critter Country, Tomorrowland, Fantasyland, Westernland, Adventureland, and the World Bazaar. Tokyo Disneyland is the second most visited […]

The Phenomena of Fast Fashion Invented by Zara

The case study answers the question regarding the phenomena of fast fashion invented by Zara. In addition, the paper investigates how the distinctive features of Zara business model affect its operating economics. The case study provides the answer on the question about the ways Zara creates competitive advantages in the market due to the modern […]

Me, My and I: Conflict Resolution

Riddles, contradictions, enigmas, polarities, and paradoxes are an imperative part of nature. They are also a chief element in creative thinking. Therefore, for one to achieve the ability to resolve conflict, one must be willing to embrace its innate nature. Ergo, learning about the conflict is the only way to provide a viable solution (Cloke […]

Contrast the ENISA and Commonwealth Approaches to Developing National Cybersecurity Strategies

Rapid progress in IT industry over the past years created an evolvement of various unprecedented opportunities. At the same time, the accessibility and interaction of various local and global networks increase their vulnerability to cyberattacks of different nature. For instance, there were cases when hackers cracked online security systems of banks endangering up to 25 […]

Analysis of the Essay “The money” by Junot Diaz

The ability to critique a text, i.e. to determine its valuable and useful parts, is a very important skill for a scholar. There are many aspects considered when critiquing a text. It can be based on the author’s credibility, the type of publication as well as types and relevance of the sources used by the […]

“Making Movies” by Sidney Lumet

Sidney Lumet was a renowned author and movie director in the world’s film industry in the world. His works are recognized across the global scene for their unique taste and the message that the audience is able to perceive both on the motion picture and literature levels. Every party was in a position to understand […]

Clash of the Titans

Clash of the Titans is a classical fictional movie that tells one the myths of the ancient Greece. This movie has gone through a series of remakes. The latest version was released in 2010 (Manohla). The book suggests a piece of the Greece mythology, which can be used to analyze the modern life situations. This […]

The Extinction of Experience

Nature and extinction are the key words used in Robert Pyle’s essay. Nature comes from the Latin word ‘natura’. ‘Nat’ means ‘birth’ or ‘to originate’. It also came from the word ‘icunde’ which means ‘to the nature’ in the early Middle English. The word extinction, in its turn, comes from the Latin word ‘extintio’. Robert […]

“Globalization: The Super-Story” by Thomas Friedman

Globalization plays a significant positive role in modern world. It creates a fruitful integration of people, countries, and organizations that can benefit everyone. However, for some individuals globalization may also become a tool to gain the amount of power that can be compared to such of a country. These consequences of globalization are discussed in […]

Article Critique: “Advertising’s Fifteen Basic Appeals” by Jib Fowles

The current essay presents a critical analysis of an article entitled “Advertising’s Fifteen Basic Appeals” by Jib Fowles who has researched hundreds of contemporary commercials with a view to coming up with a list of basic appeals found in advertisements that are aimed at convincing consumers to buy this or that product or at least […]

Satire in Moliere’s Tartuffe and Jonathan Swift’s A Modest Proposal

Satire is known to be a specific genre of literature, which may occasionally use graphical and performing arts in order to ridicule society and stimulate its self-improvement. Due to the fact that social criticism is the main objective of satire, it frequently applies repartee combined with dark sarcasm in order to depict and vividly demonstrate […]

Historical Cost Versus Fair Value Accounting For Non-Financial Assets

The choice between historical cost accounting and fair value accounting has been a question of debate in the international scene. A particular measurement has not been provided by the conceptual framework that deals with financial reporting in the international scene. The analysis methods recommended for financial reporting are stipulated according to the international financial reporting […]

Appalachian State University

Located in the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina, Appalachian State University has a breathtaking location. Moreover, the university offers challenging academic program, and active campus life. In fact, Appalachian State University combines attributes of a small library college with parameters of a large research university. The university is widely known for its affordability and […]

Optimal Pollution

William F. Baxter (1975), in his People or Penguins: The Case for Optimal Pollution focuses his concept on limited environmentalism. William Baxter outlines that as humanists, we are obligated to promote and stand for the goodness of mankind. The basis of Baxter’s argument is the anthropocentric view : “We should not and have no moral […]

Wireless Technology Essay

Wireless technology refers to the type of telecommunication, in which electromagnetic waves are used instead of wires for transmitting the signals over a part or entire communication path (Firestone 2009). The earliest form of wireless technology was used to send telegraphic signals across the waters and was integrated into the passenger, and cargo ships after […]

New Labour’s Foreign Policies between 1997 and 2010

Between 1997 and 2007, Britain witnessed a lot of changes in its foreign relations and policies (Williams 2005). This was the time when Britain was led by Tony Blair and Gordon Brown. Tony Blair took over from Gordon Brown to spearhead the New Labour. This essay, therefore, tries to discern the influence brought about by […]

Dramaturgical Analysis of Occupational Performances

During interaction with other people, an individual would change his or her settings in order to regulate the impression that the people may have. On the other hand, those people that the individual is interacting with will try to conceive as well as obtain any information from the individual interacting with them. In essence, all […]

The Nile River and the Rise of Successful States in North Africa

The River Nile lies in the northeast of Africa, being the longest one in the globe. Its source is located in equatorial Africa, and the mouth is in the Mediterranean Sea. The river is referred to as a transnational one because many countries depend on it as their primary source of water (Calas and Martinon […]

Swatch, Mountain Dew, Coke Case, Disney and Rose – Case Study

The Swatch Case Study What choices did customers have before arrival of the Swatch and how were these choices positioned? Before the Swatch entered the market, few changes have occurred, which actually impacted the positions of the companies within the global market. First of all, after the introduction of quartz many foreign countries started to […]

Gillette Company Analisys

Nowadays, many businesses face a number of problems and/or challenges that are to be managed in order to become sustainable within both the market segment and the industry as a whole. One of such challenges is the problem of dealing with the aspects of business merging and/or the economic worldwide changes. The most important changes […]

Starbucks Analysis

Starbucks is a globally recognized company that specializes in the production and sales of premium roast coffee and other special beverages. It is currently the largest coffeehouse in the world whereby it is known not only for selling high-quality coffee. It also provides a sophisticated lifestyle, which is as a result of its enticing aroma, […]

How Starbucks Changed Supply Chain Management

How was the Starbucks Company was Founded and by Who? The essence of Starbucks is about roasting the highest quality whole bean coffee, but this is not the whole story. According to Starbucks, people today believe in two things: making a contribution to the world and drinking a cup of coffee with friends and family. […]

Starbucks SWOT Analysis

To begin with, Starbucks has several opportunities. First, the company can increase the number of its suppliers. As a result, it will be less dependent on such factors as natural disasters, weather, increase of production costs, changing political and economic conditions etc. On the other hand, today the company has a wide number of suppliers […]

Online Learning vs. Learning in Traditional Classrooms

Being in a traditional classroom provides students with an opportunity to experience freedom and interact with the world. Putting a student in a room with a computer means that the student will never be able to bond with the professor and other students. When studying online, it becomes difficult for students to clear their doubts. […]

Nescafe Case Study Analysis

The Nescafe case study identifies a number of problems that differ in their priority but, nevertheless, need to be addressed by the company. First, it is the growing scarcity of raw resources for coffee production and, as a result, the growing price. According to Alvarez and Petty, the coffee industry has witnessed dramatic swings in […]

Martin Luther King’s Speech

Martin Luther King’s speech “I Have a Dream” is more than half a century old but it is still a widely studied example of good rhetoric and persuasive methods. Martin Luther King was known as a powerful orator; all the more he had to use his speaking talents to engage as more people as possible […]

Corporate Governance and State Ownership

The state ownership of publicly marketed corporations is rather diffusive around the globe; it has been highly elevating in the recent years. Despite the fact that the majority of literature focuses on the corporative management and its influence on a firm, it is highly important to understand how the state, being a stockholder, can affect […]

The Impact of the iPad on High School Education

High school students received iPad in winter. It is expected that these devices are stored in the school. “All of the devices were insured. Six iPad were damaged during the first two weeks from the beginning of the program, “- said Stephen Braunius, Director of Learning Technology. None has been lost or stolen. Only two […]

Coca-Cola Strategic Analysis

The Coca-Cola Company, established in 1892, is the world’s largest beverage company with the market capitalization of $168.7 billion being one of the top 5 valuable brands as of November 2014 (Forbes, n.d.). The company manufactures primarily carbonated soft drinks (CSD) as well as still beverages, tea, coffee and energy sports drinks. Operating in more […]

Executive Summary of iPhone Brand

In September 2013, Apple Inc. launched iPhone 5s, a new model of a smartphone. At that time, the company managed to introduce 2 iPhones simultaneously. 5s to suit its main target audience and  5c model as an attempt to occupy a lower price range market share. The distinctive feature of the 5s model was so […]

NHL Marketing

Hockey will always be regarded as a game that gives fans the second chance of joy, even when the team is painfully eliminated. The fans just need to be willing to battle and to be truly committed to a relationship with the team. In addition, with the spirit of great love, the National Hockey League […]

Analyzing Amazon’s and eBay’s Strategies

Attaining sustainable competitive advantage is the goal of every company. Therefore, organizational changes are crucial developmental processes in every corporation. Similar to globalization, technology plays a significant role in the developmental process of today’s companies. Nowadays, technological development, particularly caused by the World Wide Web and dot com, is a sure way to attain valuable […]

Comparative Analysis of Consonants in Arabic and English

Arabic and English are two widespread languages which are vividly used by people all over the world. Arabic is used in all the Muslim countries as it is the language of Koran. It is the official language in 26 countries, including Morocco, Iraq, Egypt, Israel, Sudan, Syria, Lebanon, Algeria, Mauritania, etc. English is the official […]

Oligopoly: Alibaba vs. Amazon

According to monopoly, both companies are aimed at expanding to global market, while according to oligopoly, the companies have the opportunity to control the industry. With the help of oligopoly term, considering economic forecast, companies’ current market condition, government regulations, industry and history overview of companies, opportunities and issues the companies face, entry impact, productivity, […]

Potential for Solar Power Production in India

India is characterised by a high solar insolation and a dense population, which is a perfect combination for utilising solar power in the country. At present, the country is the world leader as regards wind power generation [2]. With respect to the solar energy segment, a number of large projects have been planed including setting […]

Biotechnology Research and Development Investment Analysis

The Innova Bio-Tech Corporation Board of Directors has authorized $10 million additional budget for Research and Development over the next five years for accelerating innovation. The Board of Directors plans to uphold the company’s current patent rights and acquire additional protections because the current patents are due to expire in five years time. In addition, […]

Social Aspects of Television

Before the 1940s, the entertainment industry had separate business sectors that rarely overlapped. If one wanted to see a movie, one could go to the corner cinema. If one wanted to hear the latest music, one could only turned on the radio. However, with the introduction of the television in the late 1940s, one could […]

Tuition Reimbursement

There are numerous advantages that accrue to an employee as a result of working in a particular organization. Some of these advantages have no direct impact on the success of a company. However, there are some that have a direct impact on the organization’s success. A perfect example of a mutual benefit for a company […]

Private Teaching

This topic is worth the research, because private teaching is a worldwide activity, with both positive and negative impacts. It exists in developed countries such as Canada, South Korea, and Singapore, as well as in developing countries such as Zimbabwe, Kenya and Vietnam (Bray, 2003). However, this research acknowledges that private teaching has its advantages, […]

A Detailed Characteristic and Financial Analysis of Financial Statements of IKEA

Analysis of financial statements is a process that allows assessing the past and current financial position and results of operation of any multinational business organization. The main goal of the analysis of financial statements is assessment of financial results of the company’s operations. On the example of Swedish company IKEA we will consider the financial […]

The Difference of Language

Language refers to verbal, biological innate, physical, and vital form of communication to human beings. According to behaviorists, it is a learned behavior that involving a response and stimulus. Poynton suggested that language is a verbal behavior that includes body movements, gestures or sign language, and spoken words (15). Therefore, language is a crucial aspect […]

Knowledge Management Analysis of the Organization

The ever increasing globalization has emerged as a threat to organizations’ knowledge management. As a result, size, nature and scope of the organization are vital to the success of how it manages its knowledge. The floor space, client base served, net assets owned by the organization, sales volume and others, measures the size of the […]

General Motors (Vehicle Manufacturer)

General Motors, known as GM, is a world leading vehicle manufacturing company based in the USA. The company is involved in the development, designing, manufacture and marketing of automotive products on a global scale (Pelfrey, 2006). The company remains a force to reckon with in the present day auto industry. Although the company has adapted […]

UK House Building: Analysis From The Perspective Of Porter’s Five Forces Framework

The UK house building industry is a rapidly developing sphere due to the diversity in directions and specializations. There are many large industries, such as Barratt Homes, Taylor Wimpey and Persimmon Homes, that can be characterized by exceptional quality, broad customer base and quality of the construction. However, all of them have different emphases and […]

Managing Leadership and Influence Forces (Samsung vs Sony)

The article under consideration is titled “Samsung Moving Phone Engineers a Lesson in Speed for Sony”; it was written by Pavel Alpeyev and Grace Huang and was posted in Bloomberg Business Week on November 18, 2014. The article has some quite interesting lessons, both to Sony Corp. and to the readers. Samsung Electronics Co. made a quick […]

Microsoft Corporation

Introduction There are certain companies in the world that has changed the history of humanity and Microsoft Corporation is one of them. Almost every business organization and private home employs its software and hardware. Nevertheless, the way to success has not been easy since it has undergone different transformations in order to hone skills and […]

Costco Wholesale

Costco Wholesale is the leading warehouse retailer and the second biggest general retailer in the United States of America. The company deals with the sale of household goods, foods, and general merchandise, including appliances. These products are sold by the company in bulk and at greatly discounted prices. The Company is facing competition from BJ’s […]

External Environment Analysis of Burjeel Hospital

Burjeel Hospital is situated at the center of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. It was opened in 2012 with the aim of bringing a positive paradigm shift in the delivery of private healthcare. Burjeel Hospital is one of the best medical facilities that provides quality and advanced medical facilities (Burjeel Hospital 2012). UAE […]