Information technology essay

free essayThe application of web services helps citizens in accessing vital government information that guarantees government transparency. Moreover, government transparency increases citizens’ perception and good governance. The use of the Internet enables transparency and virtual accessibility of government information. The current web technology provides a means, through which government and the public share information on demand. In addition, web technology enables citizens to raise matters of concern to government departments. However, government exploiting web capabilities face challenges from cultural issues, ethical problems and environmental issues. The potential use of Web service applications should be analyzed for state government initiatives to be effectively implemented.

Web Services Applications in State Government

Government Web services applications require Enterprise-Electronic Commerce Software that needs to handle a large volume of data and transactions. The government Web activities require cloud computing, Database Management Software, Knowledge Management software, Electronic e-Mail software and Oracle e-Business Suite.

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Cost and Benefit Analysis of Application of Web Services

Electronic E-Mails Applications

Cost Analysis. The use of electronic emails applications requires additional security software to monitor computer viruses. Viruses carried by emails affect host applications by damaging them when the programs get activated. According to Schneider (2013), spam emails are expensive down back in the use of emails in commercial services (p.343). For instance, in 2009, 22 billion spam emails were sent within a day. Email users should purchase additional filtering software to determine if the email is spam or not (p.345).

Benefits Analysis. Electronic emails help in conduction fast automatic verification of users in government website portals. The government enjoys reduced cost of employing people to handle verification process. The use of electronic emails enables agencies, public and companies to make financial transaction virtually. The use of electronic mails is a fast means of communication between government institutions and the public. Emails allow for sending attachments such as invoice without the need to travel.

Implementation Recommendations. Emails provide a cheap means of sending information and making verifications of users. Therefore, the government should use the web service application in government websites.

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Cloud Computing

Cost Analysis. The use of cloud computing requires purchasing computer hardware and renting the software as service, without the need of providing a house to the application through accessing it over an internet connection (Wubben et al., 2014, p. 44).

Benefits Analysis. The government gains cost reduction benefits in the storage of information in the cloud. The cloud acts as a backup for government information. Moreover, according to Wubben, et al. (2014), the government gains flexibility and cheap cost of acquiring hardware and software during the launching of new online operations (p.35). Also, cloud computing provides a storage place that handles large unexpected transactions. Web services reduce overcrowding in government departments and offices during applications. When individuals fill application forms online, the number of individuals applying for transactional services, such as license, tenders and contracts, reduce thus reducing overcrowding. The government institutions have the benefits of reduced renting transactional offices.

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The government does not suffer hardware maintenance, hardware installation and software installation cost. Moreover, the government does not need to employ individuals to reconfigure servers or upgrade system because the service benefactors provide the service. The government enjoys such benefits as reduced number of employees and low maintenance cost.

Cloud computing reduces the cost for delivering government transaction information. According to Schneider (2013), the use of Common Gateway Interface enables the government to connect already existing tax or licenses information onto government tax portal, which enables the users to access information virtually (p.337), and other agencies. Hourly wages become reduced because of automatic filling of information and verification process that occurs online.

Implementation Recommendation. Cloud computing provides a cost effective information technology solutions. The technology is expandable depending on the requirements of the institution. Cloud computing ensures the development of the economy and saves on renting or construction of data houses. Therefore, the government should integrate cloud computing because its benefits outweigh the costs.

Oracle e-Business Suite

Cost Analysis. According to Zubair and Zamani (2014), the costs involved in implementing Oracle e-Business Suite include governance risks and compliance license that sum to $2620, enterprise governance license that costs $4995, payment procedure license at $805, cash transaction controls at $165 and connect to the E-business suite at $110. The cost of channel revenue licenses equals to $22, 295 (p.7). However, the logics suite contains varied prices depending on the number of users that use the Web service application.

Benefits Analysis. Oracle e-Business Suite provides a cost effective solution to ERP requirement in commercial transactions. Oracle e-Business Suite is easy to install and customize in government departments to fit the needs or the purpose it is designed to meet. According to Kaur and Hall (2014), Oracle provides a role-based security software that cannot get breached easily to interfere with data availability, data confidentiality and information integrity. Schneider (2013) states that most web services that use Oracle e-Business Suite are automated and server traffic maintenance requires few employees. Government website uses Load Balancing System that automatically monitors workload and assigns new web traffics to the internet server with the highest capacity (p.360). In return, the government benefits from wage due to reduced number employees as a result of the automatic nature of the web server system.

Oracle e-Business Suite provides a self-service application form. The Web services application reduces the total number of complaints presented to government agencies and the number of employees required to handle them. The use of Web ensures self-service through providing autonomy form that reduces complaints. The government benefits through employing few employees to handle the complaints.

Oracle e-Business Suite offers integration in Enterprise Performance Management. Oracle utilizes Hyperion Financial Management reporting and consolidation application to guarantee a fast way of reporting government financial results to meet the national budget.

Oracle e-Business Suite lowers the cost of standardized accounting. The Oracle financial system allows the government to create a customized integration of public and company transactions through allowing for the use of multiple legacies.

Implementation Recommendation. Oracle enables access to application forms that become activated after transactions are made through the use of automatic emails. The government should incorporate Oracle e-Business Suite to enable virtual transactions and verification that aids in tax collection and providing security to users.

How It Works

Database Management Software

Cost Analysis. The cost encompasses acquiring of database management software, workers’ salaries and hardware. The staff will be accountable for statistics publishing and distribution of the data on the online database. The employees will understand the key government data such as government tax rate.

Benefits Analysis. Database management software can be structured through providing attributes to entries for reducing inconsistencies and errors that could occur when using papers. The software enables the public user to update data, retrieve information that meets specific criteria or edit information. The use of Web services software enables the government to conduct downsizing. Online operations that involve submitting information into a database reduce overcrowding. Schneider (2013) states that servers get connected to the Internet and the servers ensure that Web server software runs, which gives access to information on all computers that are connected via the Internet to the server (p.337). Hence, less personal data is required to handle fewer people who go to the agencies in person. Moreover, the government saves on wages.

Implementation Recommendation. The database is a key component in Web services application due to its ability to allow storage of data. Implementing database management software enables running and management of user’s accounts virtually. Moreover, the cost of using the database in sharing information over the Internet is more cost effective than the use of traditional means in sharing information. The government should implement the application to ensure effective operation within government departments.

Knowledge Management Software

Cost Analysis. According to Schneider (2013), the overall cost of installing Knowledge Management software is between $100,000 and $1,000,000. The cost includes consultant fee, hardware cost and Knowledge Management software licenses (p.395).

Benefits Analysis. According to Richter et al. (2013), Knowledge Management software helps in reducing the cost of government operations through the automatic collection and organizing data in government departments (p.132). With the use of the software, the number of employees hired by the government to collect and organize information is reduced. Therefore, the government saves on wages.

Knowledge Management software enables users to obtain information that meets their search criteria based on the use of powerful search algorithms that aid in decision making. The process is quick and ensures information availability. The use of the software reduces the number of secretaries or data personnel that look for information in government departments (Schneider, 2013, p.395).

The software enables sharing of information among authorized users. For instance, the police department can access information on transport department to check vehicle registration. The software enhances collaboration between departments thereby reducing traveling expenses to seek information.

Implementation Recommendations. The automatic feature of Knowledge Management software helps in saving cost required in the employment of data services personnel. Therefore, the government should implement the web service technology to enable sharing of information between departments that aid government operations.

Evaluation of Opportunities of the Use of Web Services in Each Government Department

The government uses web services as a communication tool, publishing tool, transactional tool, security or backup tool and work tool.

Attorney’s General Office of Corporate Record Department. The use of web services provides security in maintaining and keeping government records such as license and amount of stock through cloud computing. According to Kim et al. (2014), as as torage tool, the Attorney’s General Office of Corporate Record Department will use the website to back up important information in secure clouds to ensure data availability, information confidentiality and files accessibility (p.78). Web services reduce security cost involved in sending and receiving information. Schneider (2013) states that the use of two-tier server architecture allows for confidential communication between government agencies and public or stakeholders (p.338). The message transmitted can only be decoded in server and client’s computer despite the use of additional computers that forward data packets (p.338).

Tax Administration and Collection Department. Web services will be used in Tax Administration and Collection Department in filling income tax, sales returns and refunding overtaxed individuals. As a transactional tool, Tax Administration and Collection Department will use Web services to guarantee the exchange of data between public agencies and individuals or companies, such as requesting for licenses, seeking for permits and registering claims. Moreover, individuals will use the Tax Administration and Collection Department’s website to access information concerning their tax status. Also, Tax Administration and Collection Department will use the website to receive complaints from clients. According to Sivarajah et al. (2015), Web services provide a faster and economical means of collecting government revenue. The traditional means of revenue collection usage results in delays in revenue collection due to the inability of the government to process all debts before the revenue collection deadline (p.473). In addition, most individuals evade tax. With the use of web service, the online population surveys data help the government to determine delays in payment of revenue through the use of Middleware software (Schneider, 2013, p.382). Moreover, the government can easily link revenue database and citizen registration database through Common Gateway Interface and determine defaults in payment (p.337).

Motor Vehicle Department. Motor vehicle department requires website services for license renewal and providing reports on purchased and sold vehicles on their website. As a work tool, the Motor Vehicle Department will use web services in ensuring an efficient means of exchanging information between public agencies and stakeholders or employees during professional activities. For instance, police authorities have login information of car registration online databases whose overall management is concentrated in the transportation department. Also, the website will act as a tool used in providing information regarding license renewal and administrative law that the public are required to comply to.

Fish and Wildlife Management Department. The website will provide an online portal where hunting and fishing license can be provided. The use of Web services guarantees citizens service satisfaction. Government websites enable 24 hours-7 days services. Moreover, according to Norris and Reddick (2013), the Web service enables avoidance of repetition of processes due to integrated services such as Knowledge Management software. In addition, the services are cheap as compared to traveling to government offices (p.473). Fish and Wildlife Management Department will use websites as a publishing tool in reporting acceptable fishing programs, fish hunting rules and the agency activities. Thus, Web services improve communication efficiency. Schneider (2013) states that Web services provide users with information that meets their search criteria due to Server Side Scripting programming (p.336). The use of Ruby and AJAX enables communication between government agencies and public to become more interactive by making websites operate similar to computer applications. Moreover, AJAX ensures that information in the website updates asynchronously (Schneider, 2013, p.337).

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Report On Web Services Technology

Web services provide a mechanism used in integrating web services application using Web technologies such as SOAP, XML, UDDI and WSDL over the Internet. SOAP is used in sending information. According to Chopde et al. (2015), tagging data utilizes XML technology while WSDL provides a description of the services provided by the web services (p.8). UDDI list available services. The Web services to not provide Graphical User Interface. However, Web services utilize programming interface within the network in providing transactional data and logics to the users. The use of Web services supports online transactions that enable payment of taxes or revenue as well as sending information.

Simple Object and Access protocol is an XML messaging protocol that is utilized in the process of encoding available information in the Web service before delivery via a network. According to McWilliam et al. (2013), SOAP enables the use of several Internet platforms in sending information due to its independence on operating system (p.41). The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) allows for the exchange of information between government and public or stakeholders through providing XML language that describes Web services as data collection endpoint cables (Becker, Nickolas, & Vicknair, 2014). Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI) allow the government to find its departments, stakeholders and the public through a Web-based directory (Kim, et al., 2015, p.396). The use of Web services technology enables communication between government and public or stakeholders that allow making payments and paying tax through the Web.

Conclusion

The use of Web service applications helps in ensuring government transaction, data storage and communication with stakeholders. The available Web technologies such as UDDI, SOAP, XML and WSDL enable the use of the Web service applications through integrating the Web applications. Despite the cost of implementing the above-discussed Web service applications, their benefits outweigh the costs because they ensure efficiency and cost effective government operations in different departments. Communication technology has opportunities in government operations due to the use of advanced web services applications. Therefore, the government should implement Web services in departments.

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The application of web services helps citizens in accessing vital government information that guarantees government transparency. Moreover, government transparency increases citizens’ perception and good governance. The use of the Internet enables transparency and virtual accessibility of government information. The current web technology provides a means, through which government and the public share information on demand. […]

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