Health essays

free essayIn the science of the XIX and XX centuries, endless revolutionary changes in all branches of natural sciences occured. By the middle of the XX century, one of the central places among the natural sciences was occupied by biology. The last two centuries have seen such fundamental discoveries as the foundation of the theory of biological evolution, the discovery of stem cells, prions, DNA, and cloning.

Discoveries in Biology

By the end of the XIX century, the scientific thinking underwent significant changes. The mechanistic thinking could not enable the progress that had caused the crisis of the classic science. One of the reasons for it was the discovery of electron and radioactivity. As the result of the crisis, the scientific revolution began first in physics and then, it embraced all basic branches of science. The success in physics had a crucial influence on the progress in chemistry. The quant theory explained the nature of chemical connections that allowed the investigation of the mechanism of inheritance. Thus, genetics began a rapid development, during which the chromosome theory was formulated.

Get a price quote

The meaning of biology as a science is particularly high since the investigation of the historical development of the organic world plays an important role in the formation of materialistic view and the composition of the scientific picture of the world. The theoretical achievements of biology are widely implemented in medicine. The success and the discoveries in biology determine the level of medical sciences’ development. For example, the achievements in genetics allow developing the methods of early diagnoistics of human illnesses. The general laws of biology are used for the solution of different problems of humanity. For example, the rapid growth of population has caused the problem of food production on the planet. This problem may be solved due to the achievements of genetics and selection, which can satisfy the needs of the population in nutritive resources.

The Theory of Biological Evolution

One of the main sources for the formation of the basis of biology was the evolutionary study by Charles Darwin that may be considered one of the most important works in the biological studies until now. In his works, Darwin established the main factors of the biological evolution – changeability, inheritance, and selection. Darwin stated that the basic factors of the biological evolution was the individual phylogenic changeability and the inheritance of features obtained in the process if ontogenesis.

Save 25% on your ORDER Save 25% on your ORDER

Exclusive savings! Save 25% on your ORDER

Get 15% OFF your FIRST ORDER + 10% OFF every order by receiving 300 words/page instead of 275 words/page

However, the notions of changeability and inheritance do not fully explain the reasons for the biological evolution. The changeability itself does not have any aim, as the changes that take place in an organism may be both useful and harmful. Then, the inheritance may only be able to fix the changes provided by changeability. Thus, Darwin faced the task to find the motive force for the biological progress. This force turned out to be the mechanism of selection and the struggle for survival.

The principle of natural selection lies in the fact that among numerous life forms that exist on the planet, there remain only those that are mostly accustomed to the existence under certain environmental conditions. Thus, selection allows the storage of such features that provide an organism with the ability of survival and the best existence.

Darvin`s theory is of a particular importance for the general culture of people as it provides the general information about the process of evolution and the development of life on the Earth. The discovery has allowed physicians to carry out the investigations on the organisms that are similar to human body and enabled them to avoid numerous side effects of various medications.

Stem Cells

The discovery of stem cells became one of the most important discoveries in biology in the XX century. However, this issue was subjected to the numerous speculations on the ability to use the discovery in the modern medicine. Meanwhile, biotechnologists state that there exist only several technologies on the implementation of stem cells produced from the spinal cord and the peripheral blood of a person.

Our outstanding writers are mostly educated to MA and PhD level

The rapid development of the investigations began in 1998 when Thompson and Gerhard managed to discover embryo stem cells. Goodrich (2015) states that stem cells are the population of cells that possess a high proliferative potential and the ability for differentiation (the development into mature tissues and organs). An embryo completely consists of stem cells that tend to be gradually differentiated into the cells of future organs and tissues.

Thus, the number of stem cells in a mature organism is smaller than in a newborn. As stem cells can be developed into the cells of any organ or tissues, in a mature organism, they are able to carry out the regenerative function. That means that in the case of the injury of any organ, stem cells are favorable for its restoration. This peculiarity of stem cells became the basis for the development of methods of their implementation in medical aid provision.

According to Goodrich (2015), the main sources for the stem cells are the fetal material, spinal cord, and peripheral blood. The usage of fetal material is one of the most difficult ways due to the ethical reasons. At the same time, peripheral blood is one of the best sources of stem cells. However, their further transplantation to patients is connected with numerous problems. The main problem is the compatibility of the donor and the recipient. This method is implemented only for the treatment of a limited number of diseases. It is the transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells in the therapy of hematology-oncology diseases. Stem cells are important for society as they provide people with hope for the rapid changes in the health care industry. It is also useful for the human culture as it rises ethical issues of embryos implementation as the source of stem cells.

The Discovery of Tertiary Protein Structure

Tertiary protein structure was discovered in 1997 by Prusiner. The biochemist stated that the protein molecules of the organisms had three levels of the space structure. The first two levels are the primary and the secondary spirals. The third structure is the space configuration of this two-level spiral. It should be noted that the third structure has a direct influence on the function of the protein in a cell and the organism in general (“Tertiary protein – structure”, n.d.).

How It Works

1. Place an order
2. Make the payment
3. Download your custom written paper

This discovery created the basis for the discussion of a new type of inheritance that was named protein-based. It means that the transmission of information may be caused not only with the help of chemical structures of genes. The transmission of three-dimensional information that may code the space organization of organisms such as the composition of the body, individual anatomical features of different people, nations, and races occurs (“Tertiary protein – structure”, n.d.). This discovery is important for society and culture because it provides people on the information why people`s races and nations may differ. It also enables medicine with more opportunities for the treatment of genetic diseases.


The structure of DNA was discovered in 1953. The main feature of DNA is the ability to store the information about a protein. The sequence of nucleotides is the code for amino acids. Due to the sequence of amino acids, there appear proteins that govern the biochemical mechanisms of development and the metabolism of a certain organism. The second important quality of DNA is the ability for replication. Before the division of a cell, DNA is divided into two chains of nucleotides. The nucleotides that do not have a couple begin the connection with complimentary elements. This ability of DNA for replication provides the ability for the reproduction of all forms of life from microorganisms to complex organisms.

Mutations are the changes in the sequence of nucleotides couples. This process has a significant impact on the synthesis of proteins. A gene is a special sequence of nucleotides in a chromosome that codes a certain polypeptide or protein. As the result of natural selection, certain genes are oppressed or promoted depending on the involvement of a protein coded by the genome in the successful reproduction of an organism. This knowledge allowed the scientists to investigate the evolution at the molecular level, to trace the history of changes in certain genes and their organization, and to create a phylogenetic model that is based on the similarities of DNA in different taxonomic groups. It provided people with the knowledge of the evolutionary processes.


Cloning is the sequence of homogenous generations that have the same ancestor. These organisms are produced with the help of non-sexual or vegetative reproduction. The examples of a clone are all trees produced as the result of branching, and even entire plants are grown from one cell. The cloning of animals is achieved as the result of transmission of the nucleus of a differentiated cell to another cell that does not have a proper nucleus, with the further transmission of the cell to the organism of the adopted mother.

Our Customer Support Team is at Your Disposal 24/7

The appearance of the technology of animal cloning caused not only a significant scientific interest but also attracted the attention of major companies all over the world. In general, the technology of animal cloning is still being developed. The majority of organisms received with the help of cloning suffer for different pathologies that cause the death of a fetus or their death after birth.

More to say, Goodrich (2015) asserts that cloning is a serious ethical problem. In the majority of countries, the cloning of humans is officially prohibited and it may even lead to the criminal responsibility. Cloning is prohibited because the intellect of a person cannot be cloned, and thus, there arises the problem of a body and a soul. At the same time, cloning may be favorable for the investigation of the problem of organisms’ development and cancer treatment. The cell therapy obtains new perspectives because it may be possible to implement the cloned cells instead of the defected ones. These cells will be successfully received by the recipient since they are the part of the same organisms. The technology of animal cloning may also allow the humanity to obtain the technology of xenotransplantation that may solve the problem of the lack of organs.


The biology of the last two centuries comes from the stage of descriptive science to the theoretical and experimental one. After the sequence of significant discoveries such as the theory of biological evolution, the discovery of stem cells, prions, DNA, and cloning, biology was transmitted to the molecular level of investigation and obtained the features of physical and chemical biology. It makes possible the existence of the global evolutionary synthesis. The discoveries of biology have a significant influence on the development of society, health protection, and the culture of modern life. The latest achievements of biology allow people to understand the structure of the world, and they are useful for the solution of health care problems and the lack of food on the planet.

The Most Important Discoveries in Biology of the XIX and XX Centuries

In the science of the XIX and XX centuries, endless revolutionary changes in all branches of natural sciences occured. By the middle of the XX century, one of the central places among the natural sciences was occupied by biology. The last two centuries have seen such fundamental discoveries as the foundation of the theory of […]

HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act)

HIPAA stands for Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act that was passed in the United States Congress in 1996. HIPAA was adopted to cater for health needs of American workers and their families. Nearly everybody understands the sensitivity of health and medical information. However, the privacy of health information and its security remains to be […]

Healthcare Strategic Planning of Brooklyn Hospital Center

Brooklyn Hospital Center was founded in 1845 in Brooklyn, New York, USA. It is a non-profit institution with the main goal of improving healthcare services to the community and New York as a whole. It was named Brooklyn City Hospital under the influence of Mayor Smith at that time (Ball, Weaver & Kiel, 2013). After […]

Theories of Influence and Power and its Effectiveness

A healthcare organization setting is a challenging one. As a result, it demands qualifying leaders that will promote continuous quality improvement and provide patient satisfaction. Effective leadership is the basement of the development and progress of any healthcare establishment. It means that a leader should be ready to have his/her model of behavior, patterns of […]

Importance of Utilization of Evidence-Based Practices

This essay will show the importance of understanding by nurses their great role in utilization of evidence-based practices. They can improve their working process, provide more effective and efficient treatment to patients, participate in development of new treatment methodologies, and challenge the effectiveness of the existing ones. Much attention is devoted to the necessity of […]

Long Working Hours Linked to Increased Risky Alcohol Use

Extensive research has been conducted to establish the link between long working hours and increased risky alcohol use among individuals. It is vital to understand the relationship between long working hours and alcohol consumption of different groups of individuals including adolescents, men, and women. Risky alcohol consumption exposes individuals to numerous health problems including mental […]

Food Safety Training Manual

Nowadays, the issue of food safety is quite relevant. Everyone knows the importance of consumption of the fresh and healthy of high quality. In fact, food significantly influences the health, performance, psychological state, and longevity of the individuals. Nevertheless, each year, the pathogenic bacteria, viruses, parasites, or chemicals contained in food are supposed to be […]

Risks of Coffee

There is an on-going debate about advantages and disadvantages of coffee impact on the human health. Many people know of some of its benefits, such as positive effects on energy and cognition, as well as reduced risk of Parkinson’s disease and diabetes. However, there are several risks associated with coffee consumption. This essay discusses the […]

GERO Paper

1. Discuss the concept of cumulative disadvantage. How does this concept apply to older adults in the areas of health, economics and relationships? How do gender, ethnicity and class affect cumulative disadvantage? Historical events of the last years led to intensive social and economic stratification of the population in the whole world. Social polarization is […]

The U.S. Health Care System (MCAA Training Manual)

The Healthcare system of the United States of America is the world’s largest health care system in terms of expenditure. However, much about the US healthcare system relates to the system’s controversial inability to be at par with the healthcare systems of other countries that belong to the developed world. However, the US healthcare system […]

The Effects of Prolonged Steroid Use on the Human Body

The latest decades have revealed significant growth of steroid abuse patterns. Modern medical statistics allows an acute assessment of the undesirable side effects of steroid use on the human body. When steroids are prescribed with medical intentions, the doctors instruct on the adherence of dosage and rate of application, so that to a certain extent, […]

A New Road to Health Care: From Treatment to Prevention

Healthcare systems place emphasis on three main functions, which include cost reductions, improvement of health outcomes, and improving patient satisfaction. In this regard, the preventive healthcare approach is more effective than the traditional treatment model with respect to these functions (Sultz & Young, 2014).  With respect to this, it can be argued that traditional healthcare […]

Health Promotion

Introduction Health promotion is a medical process that aims at attaining full mental, physical, and well-being of people in the society. It enables people to have total control of their health and as a result of this, improves their life span. Considered as an everyday life resource, health must be taken care of in order […]

Health Care Safety and Quality

The wide use of health care services, the abuse of some services, as well as overuse and underuse of other ones reveals a broad scope of quality problems that exist in a modern healthcare system. The Department of Health and Human Services in conjunction with other specialized agencies and non-governmental organizations recognize the improvement of […]

Great P. H. Achievements United States

Decline in deaths from coronary heart disease and stroke has become one of the most important public health achievements in the twentieth century. This important achievement has become a reality due the development of medicine and new technology. Thus, using sophisticated advanced treatment due to more effective prevention techniques and diagnoses made it possible to […]

Health Status Gap Between Racial and Ethnic Groups

Racial and ethnic disparities within the health care service are witnessed in diverse ways. For example quality of care, access and insurance coverage are among the several factors leading to inequality in United States health status. Such disparities could be only effectively removed through political good will. This proves to be difficult as their origin […]