The current day espresso machine dates back to 1946 or 1947, when Gaggia presented the Gaggia Crema Caffe machine with a piston lever. The device that was patented by Angelo Moribondo was an espresso making machine and was presented at the Valentino Park’s General Exhibition occasion. The acknowledgment for the industrialization of the espresso machine is placed on Bezzera Luigi, who was from Milan, Italy. This was the first espresso machine that was able to consistently push water under high pressure through coffee that was ground and was reasonably priced and simple enough for ordinary commercial use. Prior to that, almost all commercial and consumer espresso machines were driven by steam, being a resemblance of the present-day moka brewer (V.T., 2014).
The usage of the word espresso can be dated back to the year 1901 during which Luigi Bezzera sought to have exclusive rights to the earliest espresso machine. This espresso machine was a massive device that was driven by steam, and it had two group heads which were known as the Tipo Gigante. The patent that had been acquired by Bezzera was purchased by Desidero Pavoni, who saw the great potential that the espresso had. In the year 1905, there was the introduction of the Pavoni Ideale in the market, and from this, the culture of espresso in Italy was given a takeoff. Desiderio would then develop the sale of the espresso in public cafes and bars.
Pier Teresio Arduino, who was from Turin, realized that there were changes in the world of coffee shops and public bars, and there was a lack of the machines to work efficiently to keep up with the times in accordance to their usage in these premises. This, he saw, was in relation to both the technical design and the style of the espresso machines in the early 1900s. Upon this realization, Pier Arduino came up with a resolution of building a novel machine type. The machine would assure fast pouring and have a limited size at the same time. The reason for this was so as to provide maximum use in terms of ease and safety. For the achievement of this, Arduino was strongly convinced that he should transform the core of the espresso machine, which was the boiler. Upon the reception of his patent, he gave his espresso machine the name Victoria, to mean Victory as he had regarded it as his triumph, or the victory of Italy. This he credited to the hard work and attempts that had been done to create his Victoria espresso machine. He pushed on with making further improvements, and in 1910, Arduino was granted the industrial property rights patent and a certificate.
Arduino received direct competition from Pavoni in the marketing and sales of their espresso machines, trademarked as Victoria Arduino and Pavoni respectively. From 1911 to 1914, many patents of machines were deposited. Around 15 patents were granted in the year 1911, 11 patents in 1912 , and there were 22 patents issued in 1913. In the following year, 1914, just before the War, there was a fall in the issuance of patents back to 12 patents, with a sudden drop in the years that followed. This was considered an effect of the World War I. Arduino kept on with the work on his machine for the period of the Great War years, and acquired two more patents. One of the patents was obtained in 1915 for the portafilter, while the other was obtained in 1918 for the automatic machine. His works on the Victoria Arduino were captured in an advertisement poster by Leonetto Capello, a renowned artist, showcasing it as the period’s ultimate espresso machine.
At the end of Second World War, Arduino still kept on with his work on the espresso machine. It was during this time that the country was re-establishing itself, and with the economy starting to move again that Arduino begun facing more competition. This was the result of the entry of many central characters in the espresso coffee world such as the entry of Achille Gaggia. Gaggia started building machines that were operated by the use of levers, and that relied on the pressure of water instead of steam. The result of the combination of these two improvements led to the creation of coffee cream. There was an essential importance in this invention as these new models of the espresso machine could operate completely without steam and used a mixture of ground coffee and boiling water for preparation. This fusion created a “coffee cream” that was genuine and contained more aroma and substance, making it have added body than the normal espresso. The espresso machine model that was best-known to employ this system was Gaggia’s Classica, invented in 1948. After introducing these technological and style innovations, there emerged many less prominent, but interesting espresso machine manufacturers like Bezzera, Victoria Arduino, La Pavoni, La San Marco, La Cimbali, Rancilio, Faema, Simonelli, which is the present-day Nuova Simonelli, and the Universal. Most of the companies began their own machine production, but these were to some extent based on the revolutionary system created by Gaggia (“The Achilles Gaggia story”, 1990).
In the year 1951, Arduino’s Victoria commenced the production of a trolley that was moveable. This was a kind of a kiosk and was given the name ‘Carrel Bar’. It had a boiler machine that operated by the use of a gas canister, and was particularly made for mobile baristas. The introduction of this moveable trolley was an instant accomplishment, and it developed into a part of the important trade fairs’ scenery almost immediately. An example of an important trade fair that had many bar trolleys was the Milan Fair. It also became a common operational sight on the platforms at the major railway stations. The Nuova Simonelli in Macerata’s Tolentino was the next corporation to bring in a new significant innovation in 1952. This was the machine that had a hydraulic pump action. Taking its name from the eclipse of the sun that occurred the same year, the well-known E-61 was launched by the Faema in 1961. The E-61 is among the most common pouring machines. The system used in the E-16 brought about a big change in the way coffee was served in bars, and is responsible for the standard employed in serving coffee in modern times.
In 1962, there was a classic arrival made by the Piergiacomo and the Castiglioni Brothers, the machine from La Camblia, the Pitagora. This won its designers the Compassod’oro, the fundamental Italian award because of its outstanding design. During the 1980s, the first electrical espresso machines were introduced. Nuova Simonelli introduced the ISX, which came in two versions; semiautomatic and electronic. These machines had a pump that is volumetric and for dosing, with gas or electric heating.
In 1989, there was a new entry of a machine introduced by the Acorto Company. This machine was super automatic and was a complete and profitable commercial machine. It had revolutionary features, which included a self-sufficient milk refrigeration system, with a variety of choices of frothing on high demand. The 1990s saw plenty of automatics being introduced. In 1991, Saeco brought out the first super automatic machines that were purposely designed for use in small offices and homes, while in 1994 Solis introduced the SL-90 to the market. It is in this decade that more focus was placed on making machines that were fit for consumers rather than the entire consideration being given to commercial businesses. There was more encouragement for the adaptation and compatibility of the espresso machines aimed at making it more convenient to prepare espresso at home. During this decade, in 1999, the World Barista Championship, a non-profit organization, was formed. It helps in organizing world competitions for baristas so as to ensure the spread of espresso culture and help motivate more enhancements and improvements on espresso machines.
In 2006, Henrik Nielson, a French espresso expert and inventor, manufactured the first portability- enabled espresso machine that was human-powered. This made it possible for people to enjoy quality espresso at their own convenience, at any place and at any time.
There is a continuing increase in the making of improvements to the espresso machine. This is done in order to achieve the ergonomic design, energy efficiency, and temperature stability in order to meet the requirements of the world’s constant developments and changes.
The refrigerator arrived in the domestic scene in the year 1927, and was created by General Electronics. It was known as a ‘Monitor-Top’. These fridges were small in size and looked like a safe box. This look was maintained until the 1950s during which they were transformed into fancier looks. They were considered the pride of housewives and matched their kitchen’s walls and cupboards. In 1960s, the refrigerator got a freezer compartment, and was designed with soft curves. The refrigerator in the 1970s was miniature and had a look that was boxier. The 1980s refrigerators became stronger, more spacious and were built to last. In the 1990s, stainless steel was introduced to the refrigerators frontages. They got an additional door and had a bottom freezer. These were technologically designed to consume less energy. The 2000s saw fridges come with an in-fridge ice maker, a dispenser of water, and doors with ‘handy grabs’. In 2000, there was the launching of the first fridge that was internet enabled by LG, but it was not as successful as it was considered unnecessary.
Ergonomics and the Problems Faced
An ergonomic product has to be dedicated to the user, friendly to the user during the interaction, dependable and provide satisfaction in its utilization. The ergonomic quality is a characteristic of the use of the object in a particular environment. The purpose of ergonomics is to make people feel good. This begins with the provision of those problems that are connected with safety, effectiveness and comfort. Scrutinizing these problems comes out that the main source is either lack of adequacy among the users, objects or the roles that they have to perform.
The location of the lever grip is one of the complexities of the espresso machines. The lever grip has to be at height to allow the arm to make a 45 degree angle, and a person then inclines to the back a bit for the initial part of the movement. While inclining to the back, one pulls the lever using the shoulder, elbow and the wrist. A lot of the moving of the elbow and the lower back is involved with the machine and, thus, the grip being too low. A lot of elbow strain and movement may be painful, but this is subject to on the power of the spring.
Location of the steam valves may also have ergonomic complexity. If not positioned on the upper side of the machine, the barista is required to raise his hands to the optimum position instead of raising them at 15 degrees, which makes operation easier. It, therefore, becomes difficult to regulate the amount of the steam in the ratio of the movement. It is also difficult to move the lever to allow one to have full steam energy at once.
Newest Versions and How They Differ From Older Versions
A machine that is steam driven applies steam pressure or steam to make water go through the ground coffee. In previous espresso machines, steam was formed from a common boiler that was channeled to four group heads to concurrently produce many types of coffee. This design is still applied in machines that are low cost because there are no moving parts. Units that are low cost and driven through the use of steam bring with them a drip-coffee machine as a combination component.
Achille Gaggia came up with the machine that was lever driven, also referred to as the piston in 1945. After that, he came up with the espresso machine Gaggia that can be applied in the pumping and pressurization of hot water and directing it through to the coffee. When the lever in the lever-designed espresso machine is drawn to draw a shot, the phrase “pulling a shot” is used. There exist two machine types that are piston driven. The first type is manual, whereas the other type is tensioned with a spring pressure at around eight to ten bars. There also exists a machine that is pump-driven, however, that is mostly applied in commercial outlets. As an alternative in using a pressure that is manual, a pump that is motor-driven avail the required pressure for brewing espresso (V.T., 2014).
During the invention of espresso machines it was designed to possess more sensors, pumps, valves and grinders to ensure that the process of brewing is automated. These machines are known as automatic ones. These machines help in grinding, tamping and extraction of the coffee automatically leaving the operator the role of filling the coffee hopper and where the water reserved if it is not having a link to waterline. Certain models have milk frothing device and an automatic dispenser (Clarke & Vitzthum, 2008).
The La Pavoni Auto grinder was also invented and has a higher price as compared to other commercial machines. It is of good quality and most appropriate for commercial application and is a perfect choice for this price. Its design is structured correctly in die-cast and anodized aluminum. The weight of this machine gives it stability when it is not being used, and it also has a stylist look.
A thermal shield that is fixed with an insulation of class F takes care of the heat and sound. It also possesses an in-built automatic stop purpose that facilitates the machine to shut down routinely after the end of grind cycle. Its great output of 13 ibs per hour gives this coffee grinder a very good impression. A great design and the good quality make of the La Pavoni Grinders; it is like a designer art work. It takes pride in making sure each coffee grinder that has its logo is looked into individually at the factory, since it has material that are of quality and high workmanship (Clarke & Vitzthum, 2008).
Various models of drip coffee makers have also been introduced. Certain models have the capability of brewing up to 14 coffee cups and contain unique features for example; charcoal water filters that assists in sieving contaminated water. It also has more components such as brew pause that allows one to have a cup of coffee even before brewing is over. Also, it contains coffee gauge that keeps records of the cups remaining in the machine and on/off automatic characteristic that assists in the automatic brewing of coffee through the setting of the timer.
The ability of grinding more than ten coffee cups is the key feature of the grind and brew coffee maker. These coffee makers are furnished with intellectual features that remove only the bean flavor through the addition of the precise water amount. It can also be programmed to permit it to grind and brew and shut down automatically after finishing the job. They can produce various strengths of coffee such as strong, mild or medium (Clarke & Vitzthum, 2008).
New models of refrigerators have features such as the ability to defrost automatically and also a warning in case of power failure that signals the person using it through showing a flashing temperature. It may show the maximum temperature that has been reached in the power failure process and if the food that is frozen has gone through defrosting or if it has harmful bacteria.
Previous refrigerators gathered ice crystals all over the freezing units. This resulted from the humidity that was brought into the units with the opening of the freezer doors and led to the condensation of the parts that were cold and eventually freezing. The building up of frost needed the units to be defrosted for the preservation of its ability to operate efficiently. Introduction of automatic defrosting was made in 1950’s that led to the elimination of the defrosting task. They are, however, not universally applied because of their price and energy performance. A fast freezer has been invented that operates to cool food fast through the running of the compressor for a particular set time and, therefore, lowers the freezing temperature momentarily below the usual level of operating.
Early units featured freezer partitions that were situated within the bigger refrigerator, and could be accessed through the opening of the door, and then the internal freezer opening that was smaller; units that had a complete isolated freezer partition were invented. These older partitions of the freezer were the key cooling body of the refrigerator, and just preserved a temperature of about -6 degrees centigrade that is appropriate for preservation of food for 7 days.
Modern refrigerators normally apply a refrigerant known as HFC134a that does not lead to the depletion of the ozone layer. This is unlike the older refrigerators that contained Freon, which has harmful effects on the environment. Disposal of the older refrigerators is, therefore, problematic as compared to the disposal of the new refrigerators. Isobutene is the key refrigerant that is in application today. It occurs naturally and, if released, has a lesser impact on the air.
Previously, consumption of energy by refrigerators was higher when compared to other machines used at home. Advancement has, however, been made to develop refrigerators that have enhanced energy efficiency.
Problems Encountered During Interactions with Users
Drip tray drainage is not easy and most times one has to consider backups that threaten the costly electronics in one’s espresso machine. Most times, one has to seek services of a plumber to remodel the drainage system to have its own ventilation so that there is no risk of sewer water coming up through it, which will require one to empty the drip tray.
Adjusting the thermostat and also the replacement of the insulation to ensure proper accommodation of the refrigerators may also pose as a problem to the user. At times, one has even to clean the condenser coils regularly, although this may not end up enhancing efficiency. The settings of the temperature may also be given random numbers by the manufacturer that may not be understood by the user.