Electromechanical Brake System

free essaySafety control of transport is one of the most pressing issues in the public today. Nowadays it is a car that is the most dangerous one for foot passages, as well as for road users. An emergency situation significantly increases because of high power and speed of the automobile, traffic density, as well as traffic flows. Since it is impossible to avoid road traffic accidents completely; the car is improved in the direction of reducing a possibility of accidents and minimizing their consequences.

An electromechanical brake system is a new step in the development of brake systems. According to Hanning & Kahl, “With electro-mechanical brakes you can enhance the safety, economic efficiency and productivity of your operations” (p. 4). This system consists of a control unit, which is directly connected with sensors and actuators, a brake pedal with a brake sensitivity simulator, and drive wheel mechanisms. The mechanisms of parking brake controlled with a switch from a salon of a vehicle are mounted in rear wheels of drive tools. Brake force in the electromechanical system unlike hydraulic and electro-hydraulic brake schemes act on a brake disc instead of traditional braces. The brake structure is activated by a brake pedal being connected with an electronic control unit through a potentiometer. A signal dependent on the speed and pressure produced on the brake pedal is transmitted to the control unit. Incoming signals in the control center that are depending on a driving mode and a braking process are processed. Thus, electrical values are calculated for the optimal brake force. The calculated electrical parameters are transmitted into the drive wheel to implement the process of braking.

The brake mechanism is a mounted motor in the wheel drive consisting of a stator and a rotor installed on bearings. The inner part of the rotor is a ring gear connected with the satellite gears, which make the sun machinery rotate. The lead screw is input in its inner section. When the certain amount of current is in the stator, the rotor starts to rotate. Therefore, the lead screw moves at different speeds and may also change the direction of motion depending on the nature of the mechanism. Being coupled with the strip and depending on the road conditions and the nature of the brake, it affects the brake pad, pressing or diverting it from the brake disc.

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A brake booster in the electromechanical brake system has a push rod mechanically connecting the brake pedal with the piston of the main brake cylinder. According to eBay (2016), “A brake booster is to braking what power steering is to steering.” A piston pusher is generally meant as a connecting element, which has an independent shape. In spite of its format, it mechanically unites the brake pedal with the master cylinder piston. Another body or control unit, such as the hand lever of the parking brake system, may also be provided instead of the brake pedal to activate a muscular effort of the brake mechanism of the car. The term brake pedal should be interpreted as the generic one to refer to such a body or control unit. The pusher piston of brake booster has a leash, which interacts with a screw gear. The screw is hollow; it concentrically embraces the plunger piston. Nut screw transmission is also the rotor of the electromechanical brake booster motor. This device in conjunction with a drive spindle can be summarized as electromechanical to create an extra effort. While supplying the electric current it develops an additional attempt being applied to the plunger of the piston through the leash, which increases the muscular actuation force of the brake system used to the follower piston. When you push on the brake pedal, for example in case of emergency braking, the plunger piston may be ahead in its motion spindle. Therefore, the brake system is actuated solely by the muscular effort.

To understand the electromechanical system completely the electromechanical parking brake in detail should be considered. According to Audi Royal Oak (2016), “This is a safety feature designed to prevent your vehicle from moving when not intended” (p. 1). It is a modern construction of the brake system, which uses the electro-mechanical drive brake. It is installed on the rear wheels of the car. Electromechanical parking brake includes a brake, a brake actuator, and an electronic control system. Regular mechanisms are used in this system; and the working cylinders have some design changes.

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The brake actuator is mounted on the brake caliper. Zode (2016) stated that, “A brake actuator is basically a relay device in a rear brake assembly” (p. 1). It converts electrical energy on-board network in a forward movement of brake pads. To perform its functions, the drive includes the following structural elements: a motor, a belt drive, a planetary gear unit, and a screw drive.

All elements are located in a single housing. The rotational movement of the electric motor via a belt drive is transmitted to the planetary gear unit. This element is used due to a decrease in the noise level, drive mass, as well as significant space savings. The reducer performs the movement of the screw driver, which, in its turn, provides the mechanism for the translational movement of the brake piston.

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Advantages and Disadvantages of the Electromechanical Brake System

The electromechanical brake system may serve as an anti-lock braking mechanism, a stability system, traction control, and so on. According to International Quality and Productivity Center, “The brakes are one of the most important pieces of safety equipment on a vehicle” (p. 1). Compared with hydraulic systems they run quietly, have fewer components of the brake structure, and are more environmentally friendly. The latter fact is due to the absence of vacuum and fluid in the brake scheme.

The electromechanical brake system has the following advantages:

  • optimal ratio of brake forces and stabilization for the stability of vehicle driving;
  • optimal sensitivity of the brake pedal, which reduces braking and parking distance;
  • quiet drive and absence of pedal vibration that is characteristic for the hydraulic drive with ABS;
  • safe movement of the pedal module in case of an accident;
  • no vacuum booster for the brake system.

It is necessary to note that energy conservation in electric vehicles is a top priority. The electromechanical brake system is always trying to retrieve the maximum energy in the batteries once possible. However, this mechanismhas still two significant limitations. Bayer et al. (2015) have stated, “An electromechanical brake system (EMB) consumes less electric power in rear-wheel applications than in front-wheel applications, since lower level of clamping force and dynamic responsiveness are required” (p. 1). The first feature of modern batteries is that they can only be recharged at certain values of current and voltage. It somewhat limits the range of use of energy recovery. Besides, it is impossible to charge a fully charged battery.

An advantage of inventing the electromechanical brake booster is that rapid actuation of the brake system, for example during emergency braking, and the plunger piston during its movement outpace can outrun the driven member device to create additional force. Thus, compared with the scheme of rigid connection of a driven link with the piston pusher the power transmitted from the pusher piston to the driven link to provide an additional effort decreases. The level of a muscular attempt that the car driver is required to develop at the rapid actuation of the braking system is getting lower. The driver due to the rigid relation of the driven link with the pusher piston accelerates the moving parts of the device to provide the additional force with less intensity. Nevertheless, the driver through the rigid element accelerates the movable sections of the gear to create extra power.

Friction Force in Brake Systems

The development of electronic computing systems and the active use of on-board computers in the automotive industry has led to the replacement of many mechanical part units with program management. The brake system is not an exception. Electromechanical brake booster is a standalone node running under the control of vehicle computer.

Clutch sensor detects a pedal position and its rate of release. When somebody presses the power button on the front panel of the car, the electric parking brake actuator, acting on the clamping screw, draws pads to the brake disc. Electric parking brake is switched off automatically when the accelerator pedal is pushed. However, a manual removal mode is also provided when the brake pedal is pressed. According to Brain on Board.ca (n. d.), “Electronic brake-force distribution (EBFD) is an active vehicle safety feature designed to make braking as efficient as possible” (p. 1). When disconnecting the brake the electronic control unit analyzes a vehicle inclination angle, an accelerator position, and a clutch release speed. These data help to choose the right time to release the brake disks. It creates rather comfortable driving conditions for a driver.

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Thus, the transfer of brake force on the brake pedal is fully controlled with electronics. At the time of braking, the brake pads are pressed to the metal brake disc being fixed on the axle. It creates friction leading to the rotation of the wheel deceleration. Canudas de Wit and Tsiotras (n. d. ) stated, “The friction force in the tire/road interface is the main mechanism for converting wheel angular acceleration (due to the motor torque) to forward acceleration (longitudinal force)” (p. 1). In this case, all kinetic energy is converted into heat that is completely and irretrievably lost in the atmosphere. Moreover, a motor in an electrical vehicle should work on the principle of conservation of energy. Thus, the current is only needed at the time to discharge capacitors when the rotation is achieved to propel the rotor. The rotor moves to the next discharge point of inertia due to the repulsive force. Kumar (2015) has written, “When the same pole super magnet is brought near the disc due to repulsion force the disc starts to rotate in its axis” (p. 1). The capacitor is recharged during the interval and stores energy till its discharge. Thus, a new motor torque produces a rotary moment and stores the surplus energy for its future use.

Conventional old brake systems include hydraulic pressure to create the frictional force in drum or disc brakes and turn kinetic energy into thermal one. According to Autotech Performance (2010), “In a conventional disc brake (usually located at the front of the vehicle), the brake fluid is pumped through a hydraulic line toward the hydraulic caliper” (p. 1). This pressure is created by the driver at the time of pressing the brake pedal being usually enhanced with an auxiliary system to reduce the applied force. Thus, the acceleration or deceleration of the car is proportional to foot pressure on the brake pedal. The number of braking torque generated by the regenerative braking is quite simple calculated. It is proportional to the voltage at the generator output. The control system of the brake subtracts the braking torque generated by regeneration of the desired braking torque to get the amount of braking torque for the friction brake system. The pressure on the friction brakes in these mechanisms is only partially dependent on the driver’s pressure on the pedal. This system uses a rather complex mathematical model for calculating the ratio of regenerative and friction braking.

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Conclusion

The inventive electromechanical brake booster can be used as a device to create the external force. It should be done to bring the brake system of the car under the influence of foreign efforts being without a muscular attempt of the driver. Thus, in case of refusing from the device for generating an additional attempt or when its power supply system and control management system fail the person driving has a fallback of the brake mechanism. Such braking is considered to be a disaster or emergency braking. The driver is resorted to this step only due to the failure of the device to create an extra effort. Thus, it is necessary to note that in a classic car, the person has a direct proportional relationship between the brake pedal and pads. This mechanism allows him or her to respond instantly to change situations due to extra efforts on the brake pedal. Engineers spend many hours testing and improving the algorithms of brake control systems to make them fast and reliable.