World Global History and Globalization

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The Great War

The Great War is significant for the world history as it made it entirely impossible to restructure the world based on the ancient dynamic system. The European era ended as a result of the war, whereas such powers as America and China rose to become superpowers. The war also saw the amplified use of technology, changed the eminence of politicians, and marked the first recorded use of chemical weapons across the warring nations (Tignor et al. 241).

Mass Consumption

Mass consumption is the culture of buying and selling of products in bulk. After the war ended and mass production took effect, Americans needed more items as they had more money and time. This subsequently resulted in an increased consumption also termed as consumerism, and partially contributed to the WW II and formed today’s production and consumption habits.

Dulce et Decorum Est

Roughly translated, this line drawn from the works of Roman Lyrical Poem translates to “it is sweet and befitting to die for one’s country.” In the poem, the speaker asserts that if one were to see what happened in the battleground, they would not say “Dulce et Decorum Est.” The author demonstrates how the fighters are bodily and psychologically savaged in the field of battle and hence addresses people who are keen to rally young men at the home ground to go to war and die for the glory and honor of their country.

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Benito Mussolini

Benito Mussolini is remembered for being the Prime Minister of Italy with the highest dictatorial powers until he was overthrown in 1943. He is also reminisced for having invaded countries such as Ethiopia and Albani, and for bringing Italy to the Axis Alliance. Mussolini’s totalitarianism for Italy and the whole world was responsible for setting fire to the world history conflict which had devastating effects (Tignor et al. 249).

Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi is historically reputed for his preference and application of non-violent means to fight for freedom. It was due to Gandhi’s efforts that India got its political freedom from Britain, all without violence. Violent means for political freedom had been used through history, but Gandhi provided a new alternative for fighting for rights and political liberation. The greatest importance is that it is through Gandhi’s efforts that India enjoys freedom today.

Warsaw Pact

Formed as a retaliatory approach to the NATO by the Soviet, the Warsaw Pact is significant as it provided stability between the two warring blocks (Pomeranz, Given, and Mitchell 289). It was also historically significant as it parted Europe into two separate spheres: the Western democratic sphere and the Eastern communist area. The Warsaw Pact was thus a major fuel for the Cold War and a socialist counterpoise to NATO.

Ho Chi Minh

Drawing inspiration from the Bolshevik Revolution, Ho Chi Minh helped establish the Indochinese Communist Party, as well as the Viet Minh. When the World War II came to an end, Ho helped seize Hanoi, a Vietnamese city. Ho is mainly recognized as a symbol of the struggle for the long desired unification between the North and South Vietnam.

Zionism

Influenced by the separationist excitement expanding all over the globe, Zionism was a Jewish movement which was established around the 19th century. The focus was drawn by the desire to return to ancient Zion fueled by the intolerable conditions which were being experienced in Russia (Pomeranz, Given, and Mitchell 208). The movement maintains that Jews are an independent nation which deserves their individual land. As a result, it has fought to support the development of Israel, encouraging Jews to head home to Israel.

Bolsheviks

The Bolsheviks comprised of a group of people who were members of the Social Democratic Workers Party. In October 1917, under Lenin’s leadership, the Bolsheviks seized power off the ruling government and became the dominant political power of the USSR. Historically, the Bolsheviks are reputed for calling for an end to the war as well as leading to the establishment of the first communist state in the world (Pomeranz, Given, and Mitchell 243).

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Mass Production

Mass production is a system where capacities of similar standardized products are produced, particularly on assembly lines. First applied by Henry Ford in car manufacturing, mass production was based on the principles of interchangeable parts and production on a large scale basis. Mass production from its invention in the 1920s informs the division and specialization of labor as well as the increased volumes of production (Pomeranz, Given, and Mitchell 288).

Great Depression

Lasting for about ten years, the Great Depression’s onset was the crash of the stock market in 1929 (Tignor et al. 264). This depression resulted to massive loss of unemployment, reduced spending among consumers, and lower production among manufactures and producers. The depression informed America of having suitable policies in place as seen by the actions taken by President Roosevelt. The effects of the Depression were felt until the onset of the World War II when the economy gradually started to improve.

Mein Kampf

Translated to “My Struggle”, Mein Kampf is a book written by Adolf Hitler. In his famous book, Hitler presented ideas for his leadership as well as his opinion on why he believed Germany was a superior race, openly expressing bigotry, hatred, and his non-preference for non-Germans (Tignor et al. 255). This book is a significant historical document as it is said to be the blueprint detailing what the Nazis were expected to do, consequently resulting in the deaths of millions of Jews.

Bergen-Belsen

The Bergen-Belsen camp, initially a camp for holding prisoners of war, became famous as a place where those held were shot, beaten to death, beaten to their graves, or killed by the diseases which were not treated. The Western Allies discovered that the converted concentration camps had over 10,000 unburied bodies and over 100-1,500 died with each passing day. British soldiers who recorded the events of the camp established that the camp was as a result of the New World order adoption in Germany, which was an extension of the Nazism (Pomeranz, Given, and Mitchell 199).

Dr.Strangelove

Written by Stanley Kubrick, the invective political comedy aimed at parodying the Cold War and the imminent fears of nuclear-instigated war between the USSR and America. People had witnessed the devastating effects of nuclear weapons and in the past few years the countries had continued to develop and test nuclear weaponry (Tignor et al. 287). Kubrick, through his play, aimed at showing what would happen if America declared the war against the USSR.

Franz Fanon

Termed as one of the most radical and indispensable figures of the 20th century, Franz Fanon committed himself to promote, campaign for, and propagate revolutionary actions and human liberation. He spent his last years calling for decolonization and freedom, especially in Nigeria. Franz’s books such as The Wretched Earth have been used today to inform events of the past, and he has been reputed as a person who campaigned for freedom through non-violent means.

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Globalization

Globalization refers to an increased interconnectedness of people from all over the world, resulting from elimination of distance and barriers. The concept of globalization, stemming from the 1980s, has resulted to an increased integration of the world, facilitating the interaction and exchange of goods and services (Tignor et al. 350). It is through globalization, therefore, that the world has become a global village.

Mass Culture

The term describes a set of culture that is mass formed, disseminated, and, to an extent, marketed. It has been viewed as a set of ethnic values and ideas that are resultant of exposure to the same social activities, music, art, and media among other concepts. American culture, for instance, is viewed as mass culture. People tend to imitate what they see on the television, especially with regards to beauty and perfection.

V. I. Lenin

Reputed as a symbol of change, Lenin is one of the leading political leaders and most evolutionary thinkers of the 20th century. He organized the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 and helped propagate to power the communist governance model (Tignor et al. 243). Lenin was also the first head and leader of the USSR

New Deal

With the depression weakening the American economy, new legislations to address it were enacted. Roosevelt informed Americans of his plan to adopt the 3R’s: relief, recovery, and reform (Pomeranz, Given, and Mitchell 267). Though Roosevelt did not achieve the Reform objective fully, the New Deal bred a new governmental alliance and brought change that lasted for more than half a century.

Negritude

Inspired by the Harlem Resistance, French-speaking black-graduate students in Paris established a movement to assert their cultural identity. The movement focused on issues of race and identity to combat the colonialism by the French (Tignor et al. 272). The movement has the historical significance of having awakened the race consciousness for the Black people, later informing efforts on addressing enslavement.

Chiang Kai-Shek

Chiang is remembered for being one of the most significant leaders in the 20th century Chinese history. He helped to overthrow the imperial dynasty in China and established the Republic Party of China in 1912. He later became the President after Sun Yat-sen’s death (Pomeranz, Given, and Mitchell 240). His major reputation is on rallying for support from allied powers which he got from being anticommunist. However, this resulted in an impoverished, war-torn China.

NGOs

NGOs have some of their roots in the post-Cold War era. The community-based organizations were established to provide care and welfare where the governments did not reach. The NGOs have evolved to become fundamental organizations in the society by providing care, services, and welfare to the less privileged in the society.

Apartheid

Apartheid is a discrimination that was experienced between the white and black people in South Africa. The whites viewed themselves as superior, segregating the black people in the country. This is what Mandela fought against; hence, the equality and oneness that exists in South Africa stemmed from the fight against apartheid.

 

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IMF

The IMF seeks to help bring stability and promote global economy by giving loans to the countries in need. The majority of the United Nations countries are the members of the IMF. The organization provides loans, helps address economic predicaments, and carries out economic scrutiny. The IMF has led to significant growth to member countries, especially those that are still underdeveloped.

Essay Questions

Changes in industrial countries between 1900 and 1940

By 1900, industrial countries had gone through massive shifts marked by progressive growth and development. The years between 1900 and 1940 laid the basis for the events that took place later around the world. There were economic, political, and cultural effects of the changes.

First, there was an undeniable shift in economic production within industrial countries. Initially, production was based on a needs basis. Goods were availed upon the people’s needs. However, the period between 1900 and 1940 gave birth to mass production where goods were produced in surplus. Producers did not have to wait for goods to be needed before the production. However, production declined during the Great Depression which took place between 1929 and 1939 (Tignor et al. 277).

With an increase in mass production there appeared subsequent increase in mass consumption. People had free time and some money to spend; hence, they bought luxury products such as cars, real estate, etc. Basic commodities were also purchased in plenty. The two changes were made possible by the growth and increase in technology. Countries such as America had begun using the latest technologies as evidenced by Ford. He wanted to build more vehicles at shorter time, which resulted in mass production and, ultimately, in mass consumption. Technology thus played a major role in the shift between the timespan.

The industrial revolution brought a lot of changes to the society. From the economic perspective, America recorded some high levels of economic development. People had had enough money until the Depression set in. The economy came tumbling, rendering many people jobless. However, the period also saw an increase in economic rivalry among the countries. Politically, the industrial countries became stronger as they had enough funds to run their governments (Pomeranz, Given, and Mitchell 299). However, these developments later on set the stage for the World War II. Culturally, differences among people became more evident, while racism sufficiently grew among different cultures. On the other hand, cultures began the slow process of integration.

In conclusion, the changes that happened between 1900 and 1940 had both positive and negative effects. Countries’ economies grew as technology made it possible to start mass production and mass consumption. However, the massive growth set the platform for competition among the countries which culminated with the World War II.

Impact of Globalization

Globalization can be described as the development and increase of global connections and global unification of social life, resulting in consolidation and integration of the world (Tignor et al. 303). Globalization has been seen to have different effects on technology, culture, economy, and business.

First, globalization has eliminated geographical barriers between people. This has facilitated an increased exchange of goods, services, and ideas. For instance, due to the proliferation and embedment of technology, one can make a purchase from a seller who is thousands of miles away without the necessity of face to face meeting. Global economic growth has thus been fostered due to the adoption of liberal policies.

Globalization has further led to political shifts and changes in different countries. Power has been redistributed from the state as it was in the past to interstate bodies hence fostering growth in countries. Today, different countries can call for the improvement of the affairs of another country, which has been enabled by globalization. Furthermore, globalization has boosted social and cultural change. Globalization allows people to travel from one country to another. America, for example, comprises of different people, with different beliefs and practices (Tignor et al. 304). This diversity has enriched American culture.

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Further, globalization has fostered technological change. This has in particular been made possible through improved global telecommunications between the countries. Transport links have made it easy for people to access other countries where they can learn how different technologies work.

Globalization, to a large extent, has integrated different cultures and brought world nations together. The evident cross-border flows of capital and knowledge have helped promote the growth of countries. Economies have become more open, facilitating the exchange of goods and services between developed countries and those that are developing. Globalization has not only helped to boost productivity standards but also improved the living standards of people. The fact that the world has become a globally integrated economy has led to an increased potential to exploit economies of scale.