Types of Philosophy

free essayPhilosophy is the study that seeks to comprehend the puzzles of reality, existence, mind, knowledge, reason, values, and language among others. It aims at discovering the nature of knowledge and truth alongside identifying the significance of life and its basic values. Likewise, it examines the connections amongst society and individuals, as well as between nature and humanity (Jordan, 2012). Philosophy emerges from the desire and the longing to know and at the same time understand. Therefore, philosophy becomes a form of inquiry which is a procedure of hypothesis, examination, feedback, and understanding. The philosophic inquiry is made into any subjects as philosophy involves all knowledge and touches upon everything in the world. However, for the aim of studying philosophy is cognizing the matters grouped into different kinds and branches, they are all organized around distinct queries. Due to its goal to investigate various aspects of living, philosophy has enormous influence on individuals’ daily routines and the settings of social beliefs.

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Epistemology is a kind of philosophy that is targeted at determining the basis, nature, and extent of knowledge through exploring diverse methods of cognition, connections between information and the nature of truth (Borland & Lindgreen, 2013). Numerous hilosophers, such as William Alston and Emmanuel Kant, generally recognize two sorts of knowledge, empirical and priori. Empirical knowledge is attained through perception and experience. Priori knowledge is gained by a person before being proven by factual experience. Alston argues that the perception of God is a direct awareness and the experiences of God based on mystics and other people’s claims of contacting him is what brings about religious beliefs. He adds that the perception that God sustains human beings is a sufficient evidence for being inclined to believe that God is sustaining. Therefore, epistemology provides the theory of knowledge regarding scope, method, and validity through investigating the factors distinguishing beliefs from opinions.

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Philosophy of Logic

Logic is a philosophical study that evaluates the methods and principles of reasoning. It is from reasoning that inferences are developed. They consist of different statements known as premises which provide support for the conclusion (Wolenski, 2012). Aristotle was one of the philosophers who developed the philosophy of logic. He argued that a good premise presupposes efficient support to drawing the conclusion while a bad has no support at all. Further, Aristotle developed deductive and inductive types of reasoning which affect the kind of arguments so as not to restrict the definition of logic to evidently valid arguments only. In a valid deductive argument, the conclusion is obtained from the premises, while an invalid deductive argument has its conclusion not from its strong and sound premises. It just increases the probability that something is true (Jordan, 2012).

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Ethical Philosophy

Ethical philosophy is concerned with the conduct, values and the character of human beings. Ethics evaluates the difference between the good and evil through studying the nature of wrong and right (Spurling, 2013). Philosophy of ethics was developed by Socrates who was formerly known as the father of Western Ethics. He asserted that it is natural for people to do what is good so long as they have knowledge of what is right. Additionally, Socrates argued that the bad and evil are the outcomes of ignorance. He, therefore, concluded that wisdom and knowledge are tied to self-awareness. He opposed to death penalty as a way of making people understand that their action was morally wrong. Rather, he would go to the market place and have long conversations with the citizens explaining the distinction between good and bad virtues from the ethical side – the approach that was later called “dialectic” but unfortunately, brought him to death.

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Influence of Epistemological, Logical, and Ethical Philosophies on the World

The fact that philosophy majors in evaluating and directing the aspects of life such as identifying the nature of knowledge, principles of reasoning, and evaluating individuals’ character and behavior, it has enormous influence on the world. Firstly, since epistemology determines the nature and extent of knowledge, it is crucial in obtaining ideas that lead to decision making (Borland & Lindgreen, 2013). It is the case as epistemology explains how individuals think. Thus, increasing the knowledge of evaluation, epistemology enables people at all levels of the society to determine what is true and false. In this case, people use the knowledge they have to assess the occurrences in the world and distinguish whether they are true or false. Lastly, epistemology is crucial in the event of setting and accomplishing goals. Here, people are in a position to think and make decisions on things that will help them succeed.

Under the philosophy of logic, logic enables people to improve the quality of premises they make and at the same to be in a position to evaluate the arguments construed by others. When people argue logically, they easily convince others of the validity of their claims or agree with them. However, despite failing to identify fallacies present, through logic, people determining the validity of an argument can identify illogic. Therefore, through knowing how an argument should be constructed, people are protected from being moved by invalid conclusions (Wang, Huisman, & Meskers, 2012). For example, in the society logic is used to evaluate the arguments posed by politicians and marketers in deciding which leaders or items to vote for and buy respectively. Other than that, logic is vital in academic disciplines of mathematics and computer science pursued by millions of students across the globe. The students of computer science and mathematics utilize logical reasoning to develop quality inferences which are essential in establishing the effectiveness of formulae and programs.

Lastly, the philosophy of ethics greatly influences the life of human beings in the world as well. Ethics avails the means of making decisions on the course of action to be taken, which in the absence of ethics actions would be aimless. Also, ethics dealing with the moral aspect of behavior of individuals promotes its improvement in the society. Good behavior ensures productive co-existence which in return encourages communal operations resulting in positive developments (Spurling, 2013). Similarly, codes of ethics are developed in different organizations in the world which enables the employees and employers to work through adhering to particular standards of behavior. As a result, there are coordinated actions in organizations that minimize disrespect and discrimination hence increased productivity.

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Point of View

It is vivid that all the activities exhibited by every individual can be tied to different types of philosophies. Without any doubt, the achievements and contributions made by various philosophies are immense. It is apparent that ethics was and still is an influential factor for establishing the principles of good behavior among people in the society. I also agree with Socrates that it is the nature of knowledge that guides people in performing good and avoiding bad actions. It is true as with knowledge it is possible to judge between the positive and negative, hence, people are able to opting to do good and maintain a happy life. Also, logic is key in determining what is wrong and what is right based on arguments and reasoning. Logic helps individuals to have coordinated reasoning which results in concrete conclusions. Lastly, epistemology has a potential of helping individuals to deal with complex issues correctly by utilizing their knowledge in determining what is true and what is false. I concur with Alston that through perceiving and experiencing, human beings can attain empirical knowledge. It is through observation and experience that we identify the nature of things and attain knowledge to be used in specific situations.

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In summary, philosophy is tied to human existence and all the activities undertaken by people. From the three types of philosophy discussed it is evident that philosophy influences every aspect of human beings’ life. For example, ethics establishes the standards of behavior to be upheld by individuals depending on the society of their affiliation. Epistemology defines knowledge as the entity which can be obtain experientially o by means of taking what is taught for granted. The philosophy of logic enlightens people on the ways of distinguishing between valid and invalid arguments which would either guide them to making sound decisions or mislead them. As a result, based on proper reasoning, individuals can make the right judgment about the essence of issues and matters they encounter. I have chosen these three types of philosophies as the closely reflect my own views and guiding principle in life.

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