Pollution Solution of Beijing

free essayThe environment in China has met with the exhaustive impact from the urban and industrial development. Air pollution, water and soil pollution have reached critical levels. Extremely heavy pollution is caused by the coal power stations and factories in Beijing and neighboring Hebei province. There is a variety of methods which are offered for the purpose of air pollution control in Beijing. Among them there are very unusual, for example blowing away smog by huge blowing machines.

The rapid development of China based on the use of the coal is the immediate cause of air pollution. China consumes half of all the coal produced in the world which is used for supporting the second largest economy in the world. However, the efforts taken by China towards economic development has led to disastrous consequences in the environment over the past few decades. Therefore, chemical and mining wastes pollute the soil, which in turn, infects food growing on this soil. Industrial effluents pollute the water making it unsafe for drinking. According to the Air Pollution Overview (2014) by Berkeley Earth Research Centre, more than four thousand people die every day due to the current situation in the country.

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The problem of air and environment pollution in general has led to the decision of the Chinese government to take some serious actions to correct the situation. The massive closure of factories has given the result – the situation has improved in Beijing and several other Northeastern cities, but at the same time, it continues to get worth in less developed towns in the central and western China. These conclusions were drawn by the East Asia department of the international environmental organization Greenpeace, according to The Wall Street Journal (Chen, 2016). One of the reasons why this happens is because economically weaker regions lag behind the national program of heavy emission regulation. In addition, there is an impact of more soft policy of the authorities of the central and western regions which attracts large enterprises. Besides, climatic characteristics also have an effect on the situation.

Generally, China gradually moves to ecologically-clean energy sources abandoning coal industry. For example, at the beginning of the year 2016 the China’s government decided to build 40 nuclear power plants over the next five years. Additionally, the authorities decided to stop issuing new permits for coal recovery during 2016-2018 years because of the high level of pollution. However, the country cannot completely abandon coal plants as they provide up to 60% of electricity. Nevertheless, the effect of the renovation of power stations will notappearany time soon because the intensity peak of emission will declare itself by the year 2030 and then is expected to decline. However, even a complete rejection of coal industry would not solve the problem because the main air pollutants in the Chinese capital are cars.

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The Solution of the Problem of Vehicle Emissions

Motor vehicle emissions are one of the main causes of air pollution in Beijing. It is possible to solve this problem by the implementation of the following objectives: reduction of the number of cars on the streets, the formation of the urban vehicle fleet which is more environmentally friendly, and finally, increase the speed on the streets and implosion of traffic jams.

One of the most promising techniques for solving this problem is the rise in the price of using private transport and encouraging the development of its eco-friendly options. It is necessary to create conditions under which individuals and companies will be financially interested in the usage of more energy-efficient and clean transport. The international experience shows the need to introduce a paid entry into the downtown area for vehicles with engines produced at low environmental standards. The improvement in the quality of fuel will also help in solving the problem of air pollution and reducing smog.

The Solution of the Waste Processing Problem

A separate group of problems is related to the domestic and other wastes and its disposal. The traditional approach in solving this problem is focused on the reduction of hazardous impact on the environment by isolating the landfill on groundwater, purification of emissions of incineration plants, overlapping polygons to extract landfill gas and so on. However, not all of the technologies used by this approach can be considered environmentally friendly.

An alternative approach to this problem (at the same time, much more promising) is to control what goes to landfill than what goes into the environment. The basis of the method lies in the fact that the consumption waste must be disposed by more economically and environmentally acceptable ways within the waste management. In such case, this waste is considered to be an integral part of the resource base of the economy.However, when determining the objectives of the waste disposal program and planning strategy, it is advisable to have an idea of ?? a certain hierarchy of the integrated waste management (Cherni, 2002). According to this hierarchy, the generation of waste should be prevented; it is possible to be used again; if re-use is impossible, they need processing. Within a matter of the processing, the waste must be used for the energy return (Ross, 2010). Only if all these steps are not possible, waste should be sent for disposal. The reduction of the waste means not only quantity reduction, but also decrease of toxicity and other harmful properties. Waste reduction may be attained thanks to the reorientation of the manufacturers and consumers of products and packaging, which would lead to less waste.

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The Solution of the Problem of Air Pollution

The most important task for the environment of Beijingis to reduce the proportion of coal in the energy sector. This can be achieved by increasing the use of environmentally friendly natural gas in energy consumption (Urbanization, energy, and air pollution in China, 2004). The problem is that even with the current small gas proportion (6%) China cannot meet its requirements at the expense of its own gas fields. However, the level of economic development and monetary reserves of the country today make it possible to sharply increase gas imports and accordingly, to transfer a significant part of its enterprises (especially in such city as Beijing) on ??pollution-safe fuel. The cardinal increase of the gas proportion in the energy balance of China is ??possible through gas deliveries from Russia.

If China is not interested in gas deliveries, the country should take actions for more rapid development of technologies in order to have efficient and ecological use of coal. For this purpose, China should attract foreign investors. With the help of foreign companies, China can receive mainly new technologies, especially with the environmental effect. Among them are the technologies of coal liquefaction, gasification, methane production, the production of coal slurry.

Conclusions

To summarize, the explosive development of China causes great and irreparable damage to the ecology of the country. The level of pollution of air, rivers, and cities in the country is one of the highest in the world. One of the main problems which is reaching catastrophic results is air pollution, especially in large cities such as Beijing.

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The Chinese leadership is totally aware of the need for fast resolution of the current environmental problems in the country’s metropolitan areas. Nevertheless, it is also necessary to recognize that the solution of the problem will require not only considerable efforts and huge financial investments, but also takes a lot of time.The Chinese government should be actively involved in the fight against pollution by using the experience of international community, in particular Japan, which has successfully overcome air pollution issue. However, the best way to solve the problem of air pollution is still the change in the citizen’s way of life, the reduction of pollutant emissions, and switching to cleaner technologies.