Cloud computing is a term used to refer to several computers that are connected through a communication network such as the Internet. This implies that cloud computing enables people to run diverse programs or applications in several connected computers at the same time. The ideology behind cloud computing emanates from the setup of the network-based services that receive their instructions from an actual server hardware (Collins, 2007). The real server hardware processes data from a virtual hardware that is simulated by a software that operates several machines. The virtual servers are not physically in existence, hence, could be shifted or improved from time to time.
Cloud computing has become a common term for a computer networking world since they use the term as a service. This term covers for all computer networking products that are usually sold as a service. The seller in such a situation owns energy consuming servers that control products from remote locations (Fountain, 2001). Consumers can access products or applications through a simple process of loging in without the expensive and tiresome process of installing some programs in their computers. There are major models of cloud computing that are known as software as a service, platform as a service and infrastructure as a service. Cloud computing services real and operational services comprise of: Google, Amazon, Microsoft Azure, Salesforce Zoho, besides Oracle Cloud. Moreover, cloud computing services are usually offered as public, hybrid or private networks. Consequently, it implies that cloud computing services could be owned privately or by public, or as a mixture of both as long as individuals meet the expectations of marketers.
Cloud computing has become so successful due to the fact that people are able to rely on its power of information sharing and has expanded to larger economies of scale to several networks. Cloud computing services are known to ensure shared services, and converged infrastructure operates within the set limits. Cloud computing also offers the potential market effectiveness that is required in the market (Cordella, 2007). Cloud computing services can be relocated as per the consumer’s demand. This maximizes consumers’ motivation to continue using such services as long as their demands are taken care of. For example, cloud computing services that serve consumers include e-mail services that serve a nation like Japan. E-mail is essential to the world of business whereby they offer a certain application at a specific time.
Cloud computing is also essential since it has been successful in several regimes to coordinate several activities. For instance, cloud computing has been used in Austria, which is a European Union member state. Austria had its e-government progressive at an early stage, but since then, it has been making efforts to advance their e-government expertise and broaden their public facilities. For example, the Austrian Federal government gave to the Society Working Group the accountability of designating all matters that affect the information society (Kushchu & Kuscu, 2003).This was executed when Austria contracted an IT-Cooperation Agreement with varied regions. The program was later propelled by the federal regime to certify that they harmonized all the government events. The state later set up an e-government bellicose order so as to accomplish the top position among the European Union member states. Austria’s expectancy was fulfilled after they were graded fourth position after scoring 100% of a unified online service delivery to their citizens. The Austrian e-government highlights on total propinquity to all people besides easier access to the e-government facilities. More so, a total trust of individuals is taken into much consideration.
This part is going to tackle the relevant literatures or history that is related to this study. This implies that the other scenarios where cloud computing has made a huge success will be important to this study since they give an insight on the functionality of cloud computing. For instance, the dotcom ignition has made a great impact in the market since the year 2000. This has mainly been made successful by Amazon, which has modernized the services and brought more efficient ones (Lubis, 2010). For example, the launching of the Amazon Web Services (AWS) in 2006 was mainly aimed at making external consumers efficient in cloud computing. Private clouds were also made a success by the discovery of the Eucalyptus program in 2008, which was acting as an open source. The shift to the sophisticated internet services is usually referred to as the dynamic web.
Cloud computing has also been successful in providing numerous and diverse electronic government solutions besides applications that are known to exist in the world. This has resulted to dissimilar outcomes alongside the response from the public. Some countries associate and distinct the automated government systems of other countries in order to come up with the best system of their own. The triumph of an electronic government in a definite country or region does not automatically suggest its accomplishment in another region (Nicole, 2006). An electronic government ought to suit the needs of the precise country according to its structures. For example, the automated government services of the election voter registration of the United States contrast to the voter registration structure of Singapore. These varieties are caused by the level of expertise a country can afford as well as the government organization.
Cloud computing is an issue that can be discussed under two broad dimensions. This is the security that service providers require to the security required by consumers. For instance, organizations that provide software as well as platforms through cloud computing ought to ensure that there is secure infrastructure so that the data is also secure with them. This gives consumers a guarantee to trust service providers with all kinds of data. More so, to improve security and heighten it to higher levels, service providers must be ready to use a widespread utilization of virtualization in order to execute the cloud infrastructure.
Cloud computing can also be secure if the entry of data is controlled by and made direct. This is through the installation of firewalls as well as the intrusion detection system. The corporate applications are also set using the data that based on the user context. Additionally, the immediate security of data is required in order to give extra protection that ensures the encrypted data is highly protected. Cloud computing can also be secure if the security system of all data saved in the computer is made distinct. It is achieved through creating a system that differentiates between personal and individual data (Yaakob, 2011). The latest software should also be installed to ensure that all programs that run in the computer are scanned of different viruses. With such measures being taken, cloud computing can be secure.
Cloud computing will also be secure in a case where the intelligence is provided for the stored data. This is referred to as a more sophisticated network protection that will give extra control of the insights of data entry. The installation of the ability to see through the cloud will be essential since every program needs to be verified. For instance, authentication of the user identifications along with their passwords will aid in regulatory compliance. As it is known, cloud computing involves giving and ensuring the forensic investigation can be easily carried out in case of anything. Therefore, for the best security services, cloud computing will require a supplementary layer of progressive analytics so as to give an authentic visibility into data center and cloud infrastructure. This is analogized to the manner in which clouds in the sky have an ever-evolving perimeter. This acts as their security to all foreign conditions that might affect their normal set up.
Cloud computing will be secure if involved authorities or countries will be willing to support the software as a service and infrastructure as a service program. For example, Japan is one of the industrialized countries in the realm. Additionally, their ICT is well established in order to assimilate numerous aspects of cloud computing services. A good example of the Japanese “software as a service” is the Mongolia case. This shows how Japan’s electronic administration has undergone several alterations since 1994 to date. The instigation of the Mongolian Telecom Master Plan is a decent example, which has certainly proofed the general convention of cloud computing in Japan. The key objective of the cloud computing used in the Mongolian system is to generate a faultless information society by relating ICT programs in every sector. The software as a service program has seen Japan classified among the top best electronic regimes. The Japanese cloud computing application in the government necessitates leaders to execute their administrative roles and make them accessible in the electronic government websites for public access. Cloud computing administration has also guaranteed that the Internet charges in Japan are well-ordered so as to take care of low income earners. This makes it easier to access and use the cloud computing services as a software. Therefore, the Japanese government has managed to come up with numerous high-speed broadcast networks in their country. Such ability to use cloud computing services assures users an easier access to the Internet even in the distant regions of the nation. Cloud computing in Japan has also been secure since it increases individual involvement in building the nation and makes it an easy and flexible task since people can access it at all times. For instance, the prime minister website offers information about all activities the office carries out along with the office and his planned strategies serve diverse sectors in Japan. This is a clear indication of the responsibility and the limpidity of the Japanese cloud computing activities.
The Japanese cloud computing software is also organized into minor electronic local sectors like the Yokosuka online tender system in addition to the Okayama information highway. The platform as a service has enabled the Yokosuka government to evaluate the e-commerce in the country. Such activities are essential in the global coordination of the Japanese citizens along with other individuals from varied parts of the world. The platform as a service also certifies that citizens are adequately equipped in the business world by giving them information regarding the government contracts. This application of cloud computing programs gives equal chances to all people thus, avoiding discernment. The Okayama Information Highway ensures that citizens get the chance to be conversant with the latest administration progresses; for example, the resources that have been set aside for the expansion of infrastructure (Yamada, 2007). More so, cloud computing is still a success since the Okayama backbone network contains a 450 km optical fiber link that connects all capital, resident offices, metropolitan institutes as well as schools. Additionally, Niimi city in Okayama region implemented electronic voting through a touch device in June 2002. The electronic voting scheme by use of cloud computing was envisioned to support the immediate calculating of votes and improve on accuracy. This also replicated the purpose of the citizens by plummeting the number of defective and improper ballots.
To make cloud computing secure in the future, more research needs to be done to ensure that the right practices are made in order to provide consumers with the best practices in the market. An example of such practices includes shifting from MySQL to PostgreSQL programs. This practice is predestined to facilitate individuals and corporations make an improvement in expertise. This cloud computing migration correspondingly enables business people to achieve their set goals in more proficient strategies (Marvin, 2011). The cloud computing migration to PostgreSQL gives an added advantage to the system installers to make maximum use of the mysql2psql claret gem as the most advanced utility of transfiguration. This installation program is generally reliant on the language of the computer being improved through cloud computing applications. The use of cloud computing PostgreSQL is essential since it will proof to be more focused on the server side usage of applications than the MySQL. This advantage is an added benefit to PostgreSQL, which has more mature applications amenability, data and referential reliability of a higher capacity more than MySQL. Cloud computing will be secure if its usage is the assertion that a client will get a safe and a sustained source of database to support in effective processes within an institute. The migration to the improved cloud computing services also has oracle features like dominant PL/SQL application sustenance that do not lack the oracle price tags.
For cloud computing to be secure, all enterprises require an identity management system that is essential in regulating access to information. The cloud management providers will have to invent ways in which they incorporate a consumer’s identity details into their own infrastructure system. It is achieved using programs such as the federation or SSO technology (Bernier, 2006). Another model that can be used to protect a consumer’s information is by providing physical and personnel security. The physical machines used ought to be secure with an intention of making it accessible to relevant consumers at any time. This might seem like a mistake done by these machines, but the secret lies in the documentation of this data. If the data is documented, it makes it easier to trace any kind of fishy activity that might transverse. Cloud computing will be make secure by ensuring consumers the consistent and expectable access to the data services and programs they require.
Privacy is also a major issue in cloud computing security. It involves activities such as encrypting the most important data that consumers require like credit cards. The numbers are usually stored in a manner that allows quick retrieval, in case a consumer has lost or cannot retrieve his/her data. Such encrypted data has been used in storing top security data in several systems; for instance, in the United States of America. Cloud computing will also be secure if the stored information is only retrieved by specific members who operate the system. The essential concept is not withdrawn from the data storage boundaries, but is incorporated using the key facilities required by experts.
With the modern world turning into a technological state, cloud computing can only be secure if, for instance, workers in a certain organization are allowed access to several data sources by creating special programs that take care of their individual needs. Now when the Internet services are commonly available, all persons could use the same server, but still have secure data in their organization. This means that a manager and other employees are connected to the same server, but enjoy diverse privileged in the Internet. It happens if an executive team in an organization requires some secure sight to run a company’s most secure information. Cloud computing, therefore, makes it secure for them to run it.
The security of cloud computing is also possible through the creation of a site operator. This strategy safeguards all pages from one’s sites that might be known and exhibited. As usual, cloud computing may show several pages, which are used by various companies besides organizations. The specific susceptibility includes browsing all business websites that have a link to the target. Therefore, it becomes a common practice for industries to have business associates who may be interested in having some of the exclusive logins in order to pass the essential information at all costs.
Cloud computing can be made secure by the creation of a definite spyware like Trojan that prevents downloading or uploading of unhealthy content in the Internet. The creation of such preventive programs helps to regulate cyber-based crime. The spyware programs are also important since they prevent hackers from cracking business or individual systems. Some of the Trojan programs that are used to ensure cloud computing is Google Webmaster Tool. It ensures that cloud computing is secure by using options such as “Remove URL” from the selected page. There is a status that is used to remove the page, which individuals should turn to if the unwanted page occurs again. For instance, the program named 404 or 401 prevents crawlers from interfering with the website being protected.
Cloud computing can also be made even more secure using strong passwords in order to secure data completely. It will serve as a measure to deal with rampant cases of hacking that seem to be on the rise every day. Another method of ensuring cloud computing secure in regard to the issue of passwords is by avoiding obvious passwords. Most people are fond of this practice, which only endangers their data as it is exposed to guess work by most people. For example, the Internet hackers may engage in a process of guessing organizational or individual passwords. Therefore, if an individual has used phone numbers, year of birth as the password, it becomes easy for the hacker to access your data. More so, people should secure the cloud computing data through a process that does not remember their passwords in the computer they are using. This is by ignoring the option “remember password” that is given when one is signing in any website. Computers in an organization or any set up might be shared among several people thus, remembering your password becomes a security threat.
Cloud computing can be secure through the invention of identity theft. This process is accomplished through the application of collective tricks that offenders use to succor people to protect themselves from online fraud along with identity theft. For example, internet frauds occasionally use guiles like job advertisements and vacancies so as to trick individuals or a firm into giving them money for work that has not been done. Cloud computing needs to be in a position to identify the real identity of such fraudsters. This is by using a program that gives an avenue for the discovery or retrieving the personal data that impostors required. Most people have also initiated strategies that keep their computer devices unpolluted by malfunctioned information. It can be done by discovering the collective signs that their expedient devices could be infected with. This is also a measure to deal with the malevolent software that might interfere with the network. Google hacking has also led to an impact of signing in and out of the account to avoid misuse. Such measures in the security of cloud computing prove to be the best practices, which are used by most firms, particularly, due to the access by numerous people through various tasks. This practice is also accompanied by the checking of all account settings frequently to guarantee total security.
Another measure of cloud computing to ensure safety and Internet security involves guarding the perimeter so as to avoid bad online stuff. It is due to the reason that the level of insecurity has become a treacherous process that might result to the loss of large chunks of information from the company. Moreover, the creation of firewalls is used in order to make a distinction between internal networks from the external ones. The creation of firewalls is also a common practice that is done with the intention of preventing illegal network traffic as well as the malevolent content from being pungent into the corporate network. The cloud computing security has been developed due to the huge need of internet security, which comes as a result of an anti-virus and anti-spam. The application of email doorways and other perimeter-facing servers are meant to inspect and chunk all the corrupt content from getting into the network. Another measure that ensures cloud computing security is the seclusion of an individual site as well as the protected host in order to guard the information. This is regularly done by directing the DNS entry to dissimilar servers, which exist under numerous banners. This approach allows software programs to accumulate a pool of FAQS on the banner page. This could also be done by keeping FAQs applications in a simple HTML page with the intention of avoiding internet crimes such as hacking. Cloud computing security has resulted to commencement of web crowds who are apprehensive with dealing with hackers. They achieve this by contacting other web hosts so as to alter passwords for all users as well as accounts. Failure to do this could prime to the apprehending of new passwords, particularly, if a computer an individual is using is not on a hack free system.
Cloud computing can be secure if some of organizations controlled their data and the reasons behind accessing it. For instance, if a school’s certain website is essential to it, they should only allow authorized persons to access it. Some of the common data interference practices in cloud computing include changing of information from the school system such as the grading system. Thus, the website should be highly monitored and Caches installed on the particular pages in order to ensure the data is not tampered with. The server host also necessitates cloud computing dealers to keep the data secure by not giving it or sending it through e-mails to unauthorized persons. This security measure is sometimes not fully beneficial since it makes security providers become corrupt. In the event of being offered some cash, cloud computing mangers and sellers of services may leak some of the most secretive data into the public. This comes along with several consequences such as the public exposure of the private data. Some of cloud computing sellers of services may also go rogue and decide to expose some information into public without considering the outcome.
Cloud computing has been made secure in the past and will continue making an impact in the market since it gives an opportunity to service users to make a choice of their own. This is included in the service provision guidelines that are offered to consumers. For example, the success of cloud computing programs in a hospital helps in the overall application and usage by all workers. However, details of a patient are contained in distinct folders used by specific doctors in the long run. Such computing applications are also used in lessening the workload in the server system and making the cloud services as a service and platform an easy task. In the event that all systems in the contemporary society have been computerized, people are being regularly trained on the data security and/or how to secure their data using cloud computing applications and programs.
Cloud computing can be secure if providers continue inventing required programs that intensify security within a cloud infrastructure. In this case, the legal system comes into practice by coming up with laws that govern the terms of service. The development of ICT in any country requires the set rules by government to indicate the set prices and set rules of how cloud computing will function (Stauffer, 2003). Accordingly, it means that cloud computing must be supported by government for it to survive. In addition, most of operational tasks and client compliance must be signed under the proposed Act and the bill on ICT or information that has been passed in parliament. For instance, the legal bill and agreed act in Spain concerning cloud computing services are based on a formulated a plan named Avanza, which was meant to intensify their state’s information society to sophisticated levels. They enhanced the communication expertise in the republic and amended the access to electronic public services. This resulted to the devising of a legal right in Spain, which was made mandatory for all citizens to approve. The right was referred to as Law on Citizen’s Electronic Access to Public Services (2007). This law made it easier for citizens to access electronic services at any time as well as place. The law similarly gave an independent expertise and permitted interconnections of several people along with businesses. The law correspondingly offered citizens with an occasion to use their signatures if it adapted to the set strategies. This improved the efficiency of the service since it likewise indorsed citizens to distribute the government’s authorized journals together with their own according the right reverence of the e-government regulator.