Climate Change Essay

free essayOne of the most important international problems of the XXI century is the changing climate. There are still the skeptics who do not believe in the accuracy of the scientific data on climate change. At the same time, the fact that the climate is changing is no longer denied by any scientist. The temperature of the Earth increases significantly each century. The fact relies on direct meteorological measurements and a wide variety of techniques and approaches to climate assessment. Now, it is authentically proved that the fact of the knowledge base of this problem is not always accompanied by appropriate preventive measures. Climate changes affect human beings with progressive danger; therefore, the world will manage the problem of climate change in the nearest future. Although the climate changes occur without possibility to entirely stop them, the new progressive methods, like introduction of alternative decisions and technological eco-friendly improvements, should be applied to slow down the process and decrease the negative effect it causes.

Careful analysis of the increasing number of natural disasters, extreme weather events, and statistics of geophysical and space parameters over the past decades has shown a considerable increase of these processes in a short period of time. The findings indicate that the assumptions put forward by the scientists that the climate change will be gradual, are incorrect, as the actual process is much more dynamic. The mistake was in that many scientists did not consider the effect of increasing the acceleration of the universe, astronomical processes, and the space factors on the state of the planet’s climate system.

Taking into account the latest scientific evidence (including in the areas of physics, cosmology, astrophysics, climatology of the planets), the spectrum of cosmic factors influence is quite broad. The researches of the issue are multilateral and connect with numerous advancements in diverse scientific areas related to climate and its shifts. The findings should not be ignored and cannot be managed by humanity. However, people can regulate their activity related to nuclear energy utilization, gas emission, oil production, and other manufacturing processes polluting the natural environment and causing greenhouse effect. Therefore, human beings should not underestimate revealed consequences of their action, possible risks estimated by scientific researches, and difficulties for people’s economic conditions. If the previous scientists made their conclusions on the basis of observation and research, in which they had to dispense limited resources and technical resources, today’s scientific spectrum of possibilities has become much broader. However, it is still not contributed to the development of full-fledged management decisions to preserve a safe climate.

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Climate Change Meaning. Nowadays, a sufficient number of little-known facts and well-known of the world community was accumulated and resulted different changes faced the climate that have occurred in a relatively short period of time. This increase in the rate of activity of the processes, the acceleration of the movement of tectonic plates, the aggravation of global problems, including volcanic, seismic, and solar activity, the change in the magnetic field and poles of the Earth, the displacement of the Earth’s axis, the shifts of the planet’s orbital parameters, etc. (Hansen and Sato 45; Herdiwijaya et al. 3). In addition, there is the melting of permafrost, an increase in surface temperature, reduction of the area of land and weight of the ice cover and polar seas, the increase in the level of seas and oceans, the occurrence of severe weather events (droughts, typhoons, and floods), the changes in river flows, etc. (Khan, Sattar, and Farukh 119). Numerous instances of changes that occur in the hydrosphere, lithosphere, and the atmosphere of the planet Earth are registered.

Global climate change is already affecting the health, livelihoods, and living conditions of people on all continents. The observed increase in the dynamics of natural disasters suggests that they will lead to catastrophic consequences for the global civilization as a whole, unprecedented in human history, death and destruction in the coming decades. Mankind inevitably approaches the peak of this phase. Nowadays, humanity has entered into an era of global climate change, which cannot be longer regarded as a purely scientific question. This is a complex interdisciplinary problem encompassing environmental, social, and economic aspects.

According to the Intergovernmental Panel dealt with Climate Change, the most devastating influence on the climate change is human-induced processes produced the emissions of greenhouse gas (Wapner 131). The scientists assumed that it can be emitted that allows limiting carbon dioxide and the rise of global temperature to 2 degrees Celsius that can impact the change in climate (Santibanez-Gonzalez et al. 8). This was targeted by the scientists of the international community and namely the United Nations Convention in order to normalize global temperature despite carbon emission by the certain carbon budget.

Burning more than the half of carbon budget was estimated in 2011 since humanity had faced the Industrial Revolution at the end of the 19th century (Hussain 35). The forecasts of the exceeding the carbon budget attest that the emissions continue to increase or remain the same rates. The overwhelming emission of greenhouse gas that increase the global temperature by additional 2 degrees Celsius may resulted in the rise of sea level, emerged fires of forest, devastating droughts, water shortages, and other ecological phenomena (Hanjra and Qureshi 365; Lidskog and Sj?din 153). This is certain limit of the global warming that may cause inevitable changes in all natural processes and fast gradual destruction of the world’s natural resources that can depress and threaten the people living on the planet.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The problem of the climate change and actualization of the global warming led to the emergence the scientific researches in climatology and ecology. These global issues invoked the establishment and performance of the organization engaged in the estimation of the risks of global changes in climate that were caused by the man-made factors belonging to human activity. This organization was the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that was developed by the Meteorological Organization and the United Nations (Hussain 12). The Organization is subordinated to the United Nations Framework Convention dealt with the issues of international treatment on climate changes and caused concentrations of greenhouse gas.

The main focused attention of IPCC in terms of collaboration with such powerful international and intergovernmental bodies is paid to the data relevant to correct understanding of essential risks caused by human-induced changes in the global climate, their potential and obvious consequences, and possible options of mitigation. The Organization bases its reports on any published scientific sources. The efforts of IPCC are supported by the experts and scientists that contribute its mission through written and reviewed works. The composition of IPCC includes governmental bodies of numerous countries of the world.

IPCC publishes the reports, which indicate that the world is not prepared to the risks associated with changes in global climate. However, the possibility of reducing these risks exists. The report of the Intergovernmental Panel deteriorates that the probability is high that the effects of global warming can be extremely pervasive, severe, and irreversible (Zoloth 14). According to the participating authors, these changes have affected the terrestrial ecosystems, agriculture, water supply, human health and livelihoods (Zoloth 14).

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Evidence to Increasing Global Temperature. The end of the twentieth century was designated by warming that is continued to the present, except for a small interval in the middle of the same century. It should be noted that the 1990s were the warmest period for not only in the last 150 years, but also in general for all the past millennium. Increase in average global temperature was with a regional perspective. At the same time, temperature measurements of tropical ocean area have shown an increase of sediments (Khan et al. 120). Long-term observation of meteorological stations for the snow level showed that the area of the Northern snow cover has decreased more intensive in the last decade (Silvan and Jokinen 104). Thus, in recent years, some climate parameters are changing and indicating instability of the global climate system.

Mountain glaciers are the one of the most sensitive indicators of the condition of the global temperature and climate system. The number of glaciers decreased, which is the clear evidence of increasing global temperature. Minor changes in climatic conditions cause a significant shifts in the state of permafrost. World ocean level should rise due to thermal expansion of the water and the melting of glaciers and sea ice as a result of the rise in global temperature. These two factors have led to an increase in mean level of seas in the last century by 10-20 cm (Church and White 585). Long-term data pf coastal stations, the rate of sea level rise in the twentieth century has been greater than in previous century.

Extreme weather and climate events rarely emerge, but they are almost always accompanied by destruction and significant losses. According to Munich Re Reinsurance Company, economic losses in different Asian and American countries and from natural disasters, including those caused by extreme weather events, increased by several times. Increase in the number of extreme events, especially temperature anomalies, may be associated with an increase in average global temperature.

Consequences of Global Temperatures Rise. If global temperatures raise much beyond 2 degrees Celsius, the consequences could be devastating and referring different areas of human life and natural processes. For example, if the carbon budget is exceeded, the global sea level will be accelerated that impacts the living conditions of the national communities. The fact of increased sea level will cause floods and storm surges (Lin et al. 462). Other aspects consider the experience of humanity in the happened forest fires that will be increased. In addition, precipitation events are the following consequences of the global warming and the global temperature rise. The next years will be distinguished by their increased number. The droughts can be intense and longer in certain regions.

Global climate changes affect the health, living conditions, and livelihoods of people on all continents. IPCC engaged in the study of the risks of global climate change due to the thermal effect confirms these facts at the international level. The observed increase in growth dynamics of global natural disasters indicates that, in the coming decades, they will lead to droughts, earthquakes, floods and other consequences for the global civilization.

History of Climate Change Negotiations and Treaties

History of the mainstreaming environmental issue and bringing it to the international level has started in 1992 by the initiation and signing of the treaty occupied the international affairs and relationships. Later, conducted negotiations and consequent modification of international conventions prolonged the management of climate change.

UNFCCC of 1992. The adoption of the convention by a variety of countries in the world constituted acceptance of their participation in common outlined efforts to achieve long-term effects and assigned global mission. This meant that the need to study and solve the problem of climate change has been submitted for a global consideration by the international community. The Convention is the first evidence of the striving various countries to cooperate for deriving the total chain of actions and recommendations.

The Convention focuses on combating climatic changing conditions, sticking to a stable temperature, limiting of the emissions of harmful gases, managing modern economic issuers, and other related aspects. In 1992, the event was a milestone for the international collaboration, as it has brought the long-term issue of the highest priority for all human beings (Nilsson and Pitt 95).

The Framework Convention recognized the seriousness and danger of the emerged climatic changes and the degree of the following concerns in various countries with different levels of development by these facts. The document imposed delimitation and differentiated dimensions of responsibility of different countries according to their level of development. Thus, the negotiations led out the differences between the developed and the developing countries as the issuers of emission of gases forming the greenhouse effect. It was determined that the developed countries are more active in the commitment of these emissions compared to the developing countries because of the high level of production scope and its concentration. In addition, a similar mode was attributed to the developing countries because of the coming projected increase in their social needs, as well as environmentally unfriendly ways to meet them.

Despite the huge number of the attempts of the world scientific community to study and predict climate changes, international cooperation resulted in confirmed uncertainty of different ecological forecasts, their qualitative and quantitative characteristics that represent only surface, static, and inaccurate reflection of the climate issue. This fact has imposed certain disadvantages for scientific hypothesis and regulations that were designed in modern theoretical and applied researches.

One of the important recognitions of the Convention was the announced need for unification of common efforts of all countries in the most effective management and regulation of activities to achieve operational beneficial effect (Nilsson and Pitt 97). In this context, the treaty has also announced such conclusions, which became the subject of long and painful discussions between the countries, especially large states, and led to a slowdown of the actions called for in the text of the Convention. The agreement marked the differentiation of liabilities of different countries for emissions of climate change, and, consequently, for the development and implementation of appropriate policies and programs devoted to the correcting these changes in global climate. In addition, some discussion point was marked real opportunities and related socioeconomic conditions of their application in each country. The Convention was signed by almost 190 countries including the United States. The country agreed to fulfill their obligations in terms of the treaty. As it will be shown later in the history of climate change negotiations and treaties, this agreement has been given because of the framework nature of the international agreement.

The Kyoto Protocol of 1997. Since the Convention has been adopted in the framework of the formed need for taking the measures and joint efforts of all countries, the necessity to introduce a more stringent and specific measures to address the issue of environmental stabilization and of combating climate change has resulted in the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 (Lau and Mohamed 5280). These arrangements continued international practice of slowing down climate changes.

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The Kyoto Protocol put forward more specific and clear commitments in the form of obligations of all parties of the Protocol through their qualitative and quantitative contribution to the achievement of agreed-upon goals. The Protocol was focused on the reduction of anthropogenic emissions. Current status of the Protocol is characterized by its ratification by more than 170 countries with a variety of industrial concentration, except the United States (Lau. and Mohamed 5280).

The role of the United States remains crucial in the successful implementation of international acts. Although the United States signed the convention in 1992, but after 9 years the President Administration put forward the rejection of the Convention’s provisions (Lau. and Mohamed 5280). Officials justified this fact by the lack of unambiguous and decisive factual evidence that global warming is triggered by the generation and release of greenhouse gases. According to the head of the state, the Convention was too superficial in an attempt to minimize climate change. Instead, it greatly limited and threatened the U.S. industry. In defense of this position of the U.S., the officials cited the facts of unconditional country’s contribution to the world production volumes. In addition, they pointed to the dominance of China in environmental pollution by gases and its liberal position within the framework of the Convention from its standpoint of the developing country. The resistance of the political elite to establishment of the international system through international agreements is explained by the alleged potential threat of violation of the U.S. sovereignty.

“Paris Agreement” of 2015. In order to replace, actualize, and support the Kyoto Protocol and the Framework Convention, the Paris Agreement was adopted in December, 2015. This document confirms the participation of more than 190 countries to restrict activities that lead to pollution of the atmosphere (Boyd, Stern, and Ward 6). Particular attention was specifically and in detail paid to minimization of involvement of fossil fuels in production processes. Combustion of this fuel releases carbon dioxide leading to greenhouse effect. Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, these changes were more closely examined in the context of economic development and design of the approaches to help the countries with the lowest level of development to introduce and maintain the climate initiative.

This agreement was designed to give a decisive answer to the disputes and disagreements between the developed and the developing countries regarding their different status and the possibility of using fossil fuel sources to maintain the level of social and economic development and welfare. If the Kyoto Protocol was based on the tasks to improve the ecological condition of the Earth, the Paris Agreement brings progressive use of alternative technologies to minimize emissions and flexibly adapt manufacturing companies to global changes.

The agreement describes certain obligations of the participating countries to regulate the climate issue that has been done within the main mission and objectives of the process. Solution was complicated by the fact that different countries have their own national features of development. Therefore, their roles in the Agreement were determined by their specific potential. In addition, the included programs transparently and openly were published to the public to ensure and assure its participation. The meeting resulted in the driven expectations from the countries to take all possible measures to reduce emissions on their own territory and on the objects abroad. Contoured support of these activities in the developing countries is based on external and internal funding and the use of various alternative progressive technologies.

Lots of questions and contradictions were still not clear, while the responsibility for failure to comply with the promises and restrictions on the fuel production were critically considered by scientific community and the world public. In addition, rare international meetings devoted to the global issue were interpreted as unsuccessful and unproductive attempts to solve a serious problem.

The issue of climate change requires the use of large-scale methods and practices of local events. The complete agreement in Paris was initiated to consider how to limit emissions of greenhouse gas and to reduce the likelihood of adverse climatic events. However, given the political and economic difficulties, the result of the negotiations resulted in a more international compromise that can resolve only part of the global problems. The supporters of the deal hoped that an agreement can be strengthened after some period of time. It has a full-fledged basis for approval. Despite the supposedly less efficient Paris agreements, it completed the efforts made the issue of climate change to locate in forefront in the future.

Roadblocks and Solutions

Modern theoretical positions on climate change are not able to accurately predict the appropriate time frame of climate change associated with increasing global temperatures and causing natural disasters. International cooperation, decisive actions to regulate energy-consuming and polluting industries, and technological development on the greening of vehicles could save the situation, but their actual performance is faced with short-sighted interests and more powerful force obtaining the short- profits without taking on account of global climate changes proven by scientific arguments. The problems of uncoordinated efforts of powerful countries like the U.S. and Japan in an attempt to improve the ecological state of the environment, the economic interests of the companies belonging to the most profitable energy complexes, and problems with the cap-and-trade became essential roadblocks to slowing the climate changes.

Disagreement between USA and China. It is well known that climate change is largely caused by the emissions of greenhouse gases, which are concentrated mainly in large countries such as the USA, Canada, Russia, China, Japan, India, etc. These countries are the areas with a high concentration of the population regularly provided by the production of energy and accompanied by a dangerous concentration of waste products of mankind activity.

Although the proportion of pollution of the environment and provoking climate change should be distributed accordingly to the processes and measures counter climate change, different countries have their own vision for solving this global problem. For example, China and the United States with their significant innovative, scientific, and technical potential do not come to the unity of environmental solutions. Discussions are compounded by a peculiar distribution of a debt among these major countries for the super-exploitation of the Earth biosphere and atmospheric resources.

The stumbling block lies in the willingness to recognize and show responsibility and loyalty to the polluting effect of internal activity. Individual liability is difficult to determine, as it is associated with the changes in the international utilization and allocation of productive forces and the active stimulation of foreign trade. These factors of complex ecological and economic interaction between countries cause a discussion regarding the individual’s contribution to the cause which must relate to the overall efforts of all countries. However, the problem and dispute have much deeper rationale.

International disputes regarding the management of climate change are based on the discrepancy between the priorities of the western and eastern ecological concept. U.S. ties interpretation of climate threats to the world mainly with activities of the developing countries. However, Chinese experts are of the opinion on the problems of these countries with access to more environmentally friendly forms of production and challenges of development. Dilemma is repelled by the principle of differentiated responsibility of countries for the results of its operations and its impact on climate change.

The drama of the unity of the countries in addressing the global problem is that both China and the U.S. have the capacity to take preventive measures to address environmental issues. China expressed its willingness to increase the costs to reduce greenhouse gas, but it expects appropriate action by other major countries, especially the United States, which is characterized by the largest number of transnational corporations using larger volumes of Earth’s natural resources. Instead, the U.S. rejects excessive and full international obligations.

Current antagonism is intensified by U.S. commitment to consumer lifestyle and the Chinese preference to equitable distribution of the efforts. This clash of interests is the roadblock to the established agreement on the way of cooperation in environmental protection. The countries are still not ready to recognize that the negative climate change, low resistance of climate, and global warming can be controlled only on the basis of the international balance of power.

To date, U.S.-Chinese relations in the area of green economy have significant global value, but they contain some of the difficulties. China expects the greater contribution of the United States to the issue of environmental management and reduction of pollutant emissions (Bartosiewicz and Miley 24). Chinese officials have called attention to the presence of domestic legislative difficulties and differences in the area of the combating climate change. The existence of a conflict of interests in the South China Sea, cyber-security, and other national security issues arising in the international relations of these countries are some of the obstacles to unification of efforts on other issues, especially environmental safety.

Economic agreements of each country as the largest issuer of greenhouse gases belong to the reasons that the Chinese and the U.S. economies continue to grow in the traditional way with the previous release of carbon (Friedman). However, tension between the countries should come to end through negotiating the relevant agreements in terms of their ecological competitions.

“Interests” of Polluters. Climate change as a global topical issue of the last decades has become a serious problem for the world economy. Environmental changes have become a catalyst for change in matters of greening different priorities and rich industries. It is obvious that the world production and markets of oil, gas and coal represent a direct threat to the stabilization of climate change, because these industries are the largest destroyers of the planet’s eco-systems due to intensive exploitation of the biosphere and the significant volumes of emitted substances that increase the greenhouse effect.

The activities of these industries are tied to monopolization and competitive advantage in particular valuable natural resources. The reserves of Central Asia and the Caspian basin are used by domestic countries and large importers through export diversification and investment. They stimulate the producers of petroleum, gas, and coal to maximize their revenues from sales of natural resources and enhance the economic and political sovereignty through cooperation with the major developed countries of the world. Therefore, a relatively short term income allows these manufacturers to stay indifferent to climate change, the tightening of the consequences of which will be observed in relatively long term.

The growth of the energy sector in Russia, Saudi Arabia, the USA, China, Iran, Iraq, and other countries with a powerful oil-producing capacity may be reduced because of the global trends in greening and combating climate change, which would entail structural transformations in other related areas, unemployment, reduced exports, economic depression, and other effects depending on the energy industry. Therefore, these countries are reluctant to follow the international agreements concerning the protection of the environment. This means that climate change continues to intensify and bring new threats and disasters.

The fight against the greenhouse effect and related emissions to the atmosphere is challenged by the obstacles of the global energy business conditioned by political and economic arrangements. The companies producing energy and earning their economic advantages in the global market reduce the security of the planet in front of the external action and internal contamination. This can be explained by climatology and related sciences. In the structure of the planet, oil forms the carbon-sphere that facilitates the energy exchange between the Earth and the Sun. Moreover, it slows down the speed of burning the Earth’s core. Therefore, its production creates the reverse effect and serves honest factor in climate change. However, the oil, gas and coal industries are interested in energy resources from an economic point of view that inhibits the development and implementation of environmental programs slowing climate change.

Attractiveness of these industries affects the striving for income rather than lowering the dynamics of climate change. Petroleum companies experience excess returns that may be brought by volatility in oil industries (Elyasiani, Mansur, and Odusami 966). Therefore, the price may sometimes significantly increase and ensure extra income. In addition, certain monopolization of OPEC companies to set favorable prices. Since the profitability of these industries has changed the economy, mercantile motives continue to guide business decisions disregarding environmental impact of such activity.

Hopes for the Developed Countries. According to the Convention adopted by the United Nations, The developed countries were endowed with great expectations and responsibilities for taking action to address the global problem of climate change. In particular, the Convention recognizes the need to attract more sophisticated and advanced tools and scientific results in the field of ecology. The document signed by both the developed and developing countries recognizes the need to engage the developed countries to the use of measures for the development and implementation of strategic programs in order to minimize the greenhouse effect with regard to their different and dominant prior role in its strengthening. This interpretation of the provisions of the international instrument gives the developing countries rationale to suggest a measure of greater responsibility of the developed countries in tackling the climate problem.

Next, the Convention identifies the countries with their geographical features that are most vulnerable to climate impacts. From an economic perspective, these countries are also developing. Therefore, their welfare and development are positioned as the possible victims of ignorance by the developed countries their vital importance in the immediate finding of environmental solutions. However, the key meaning has the confirmation and consolidation of the fact that the developing countries were prescribed with economic difficulties related to the priority of the energy sector for the full development of the national economy. It should be noted that the imposition of measures to limit gas emissions in the developing countries with related social difficulties has been loyally enshrined in the Convention as a special circumstance that may trigger an adverse effect on the stability of economic growth. Therefore, the developing countries felt their priority in the implementation of preventive measures. In addition, the development of the energy sector of these countries would not budge hard by international regulation than in the developed countries with a powerful energy potential.

Diplomats from various countries recognize that industrialized countries had historically greater impact on climate change, which means proportionally greater contribution of their efforts to minimize the greenhouse effect. This difference in commitment and resource opportunities for the developing and the developed countries forms a priority and responsibility of their work on climate change. Therefore, the developing countries believe that the developed counterparts will succeed in their efforts.

The participation of the developing country in the general program of climate change obstruction still depends on the role of their developed counterparts in this process. International relations, particularly trade, are based on mutually beneficial import and export relations. Therefore, the requirements for a supply of goods and services between the developed and the developing countries must comply with international requirements that cannot be accomplished without the support of the suppliers from the developing countries by the developed countries. However, the developed countries which are attributed to a leading role in addressing the climate issue are looking for the ways to share responsibility through the implementation of foreign trade policy of trade-related measures, i.e. the use of more stringent climate standards. This may affect the financial weakening of the developing countries counting on loyalty from their more developed partners.

It is a well-known fact that the developed countries release approximately 80 % of global volume of greenhouse gas (Meinshausen et al. 236). The average emission per capita of China’s population is five times less than in the U.S., while total emissions in these countries have a similar gap. Therefore, the expectations of the developing countries in the active participation of the developed countries and their scientific, technological, and financial support are natural and justified. However, the countries with rapidly developing economy (China, India, and others) are also required to comply with international agreements and the reduction of their greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Observation of more intense innovation and scientific research in the environmental field of the developed countries allocates their best opportunity to improve the state of the climate.

Cooperation between the USA and China. Cooperation of the U.S. and China to address the issue of preventing climate change will bring hope to the world community by the significant contribution of these countries to the solution of global problems. The countries plan to reduce annual emissions from their production objects several billion tons. China is more optimistic in its forecasts.. This will greatly increase the chances of improving the ecological situation on the planet. Through the use of renewable resources, the countries will be able to translate the energy consumption by more than optimal resources.

Cooperation in the field of research and the introduction of clean energy will be an important part of the scientific cooperation, which will find new ways to preserve the optimal climate. Developing and strengthening of scientific background of preparation of both countries for mutual collaboration to reduce the impact of vigorous activity on the environment will make a contribution of these powerful countries reasonable, accurate, and successful. This means that the opportunity to slow down and stop climate change can be realized at the international level

The cooperation of these powerful countries will contribute to the creation of innovative developments in the framework of environmentally friendly urban trends, which minimizes local emissions of greenhouse gases in these countries and in any other states all around the world. As China and the United States are actively involved in numerous international projects and relationship, such environmental impact creates a chain of innovation transfer and diffusion. Therefore, the promotion of environmental ideas at a global level will reduce the global impact on the atmosphere and the biosphere. Demonstration of clean cities and the use of appropriate energy will multiply the contribution of this cooperation. Since the creation and promotion of ecological products and the inclusion of the concept of sustainability in the corporate social responsibility has already taken the serious legislative form, the improvement of these activities in the local level also facilitates the solution of the climate issue.

Decline of the Coal Industry. In the framework of international conventions and the national programs of emissions’ reduction, the developed countries are forced to reflect on the need to reduce the traditional way of development of the industries included in the energy sector. One of the most important industries is the coal industry, which will undergo some cuts in the next few decades. Thus, the U.S. energy balance will reduce energy use by one-third by 2030 in return for the increased use of alternative sources of cleaner energy. In addition, the coal industry will be checked for compliance with the higher standards more strictly. It is believed that the transition of the coal industry to more innovative technology will help reduce emissions and maintain a balance of minerals of the planet.

Along with other reforms of the energy sector, such measures will cost the United States billions a year. In addition, prospects to reduce the activity of the coal industry as one of the most relevant activities in the U.S. will lead to an increase in energy prices during the transitional period, large losses of workplaces, and economic depression in the states that are most concentrated in mining and processing of coal in the power stations. However, those consequences can cover the benefit obtained from the greening of industry. Consequently, climate changes will be mitigated.

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Global trends in the reduction of activity of the industry will follow the economy of the largest market players, including the United States. Therefore, such measures should be based on ready-made alternatives to solve the problem, successive reforms of the painless transition, and careful regulation of the financial sector. The more united the international community acts during revolutionary changes, the easier each country experiences industrial shock.

Developments in Transportation. The advent of ecology-oriented transport modifications significantly reduced the level of pollutant emissions into the atmosphere. Development of the world’s leading companies in the automotive industry has shown the effectiveness of the projects related to vehicles running on electricity. Even such cars are accompanied by difficulties with transport infrastructure and service processes though; they gave a rise to evolutionary change in the transport sector of the economy. The eco-friendly car becomes a promising product able to compete with conventional cars, but it has a significant advantage, as it is the prospect of the future and a means of improving the environment while maintaining a dynamic and well-being of mankind.

The need for an innovative approach to the creation of more advanced and ecological transport becomes acute and urgent necessity in view of the growing pressure on the transport system in terms of a globalized economy. Thus, the emergence of the modern airbuses and jets using alternative energy is the natural tendency of the transport industry. Modern trends condition environment-friendly feature as a peculiarity included in the composition of service quality.

The development of the public transport system is the ability to minimize the environmental impact of many cities, seeking eco-friendly status with low exhaust conventional vehicles. Thus, even the use of railroads as a public transportation imposes on this sector only a quarter of carbon dioxide emitted in the global volume, while the rail vehicles cause only less than one percent of the emissions caused by vehicles. Using the railway and public transport offers an alternative solution for the sustainable ecological development of any country.

To sum up, the world will manage the climate change due to experience, gradual evolutionary steps, and the development of forms of international cooperation. Although the climate change has become the actual and crucial issue, it has evoked the concerns of a society about the future of humanity. Thus, the problem was addressed by all community taking care of the next generations and sustained ecological condition. As a result, the climate change was centered in involvement of the countries with different development level. Furthermore, the history of the climate change negotiations and treats attested certain progressive but slow advancements. Therefore, the existence of modern disputed issues and barriers of the climate change mitigation can be solved by introduction of alternative decisions and technological eco-friendly improvements.