This land has been set aside for the construction of a permanent car park facility for the surrounding industrial complex. The surrounding industrial buildings are above the ground but not multi-store. Most of them have been erected up to the ground or first floor. This land was previously used as an overflow lorry park and small independent vehicle dismantling yard. An official soil toxicology report identified significant levels of industrial-type contamination in the soil content. The report says that the contamination is present within the top 1.5 meters of the soil. However, below the 1.5 meters level, the amount of contamination is extremely low and insignificant. The industrial type contamination of the soil may have been caused by spillages resulting from overflow lorry park activities. The fact that only 1.5 meters have been affected greatly shows that the spillages sipped through the soil. However, the sipping only occurred to the top most layer of the soil.
This report is a careful analysis and evaluation of issues associated with the construction activities of the planned car park and the erection of the pre-cast concrete bridge. The construction plan has already been laid down. The car park will be erected at the furthest side of the land. To gain access to the car park, a single track road bridge will be constructed. This bridge will be a permanent structure that will create a one-way access point to the car park. After a detailed consultation and consideration by the involved engineers, it was decided that a pre-cast concrete bridge deck is the most efficient for the success of this project (Hendrickson & Au, 2009, p.248). Further, they decided that the bridge’s piled foundation and abutments would be cast in situ concrete.
This paper conducts a detailed evaluation of the plant and machinery requirements as well as the materials to be used to complete this construction project successfully. Key issues in the entire construction process will also be evaluated critically. Major issues like the soil toxicology, construction methodology, technological, and environmental engineering activities will be addressed in this paper.
Legal and Practical Difficulties Associated with the Engineering Activities Planned for This Piece of Land
There are bodies that have the responsibility of controlling and regulating activities done on a land that has been classified as intoxicated or contaminated. These bodies set legal restrictions on how the land can be used. This can pose difficult challenges in this construction project. The stakeholders have to comply with the rules and regulations stipulated by such bodies. Other times, the bodies in charge of all contaminated land gives strict rules on the procedures for the remediation of such land before any development activities can be undertaken on it. The procedures may be bureaucratic and extremely expensive. This may be part of the legal and practical challenges that the engineers will have to deal with.
The legal regulations may not prevent the construction of the car park and the bridge. However, the presence of such constructions means that people will be in contact with the contaminated soil and can therefore be exposed to the risks or harm by the soil contaminated by industrial-type contamination. This will create challenges for the developers and the engineers. They will have to invest in the process of reducing the effects of the toxins before the local authorities can give them the permission to continue with the construction project.
The Procedure Required to Plan, Monitor and Control the Onsite Activities Associated with Construction of the Single Track Bridge
In any construction project, the tools and procedures for planning, controlling, and monitoring the onsite activities are unavoidable (Hendrickson & Au, 2009, p.325). For the project to be completed successfully, control, planning and record keeping activities should be undertaken by all the managers, engineers and stakeholders of the project (Hendrickson & Au, 2009, p.325). Effective planning, monitoring, and control help the engineers complete their work within the set deadline and the forecasted budget. Moreover, it helps the managers to know the progress of the project, identify problems before they lead to deviation, and implement strategies to avert the problems. For this project, the engineers and the managers need to work together in order to ensure successful execution of the onsite construction activities associated with the construction of the single-track bridge.
The process to be undertaken in the project management for the construction of the single track should ensure that the project gives the best result, eliminates time wastage and reduces the costs associated with the implementation of the project. The procedure required to plan, monitor, and control onsite activities in the construction of the single track bridge will be as follows.
i) Review the initial work plan regularly (Das, Frangopol, Nowak, Institution of Civil Engineers (Great Britain) & Great Britain, 2009, p.113). This will help the engineers stay focused on the planned activities of the project. The work plan should be reviewed on daily or weekly basis. Therefore, the managers and engineers will be able to plan on what needs to be done next. They will also be able to monitor and control the required operations.
ii) Capture and update the work plan (Hendrickson & Au, 2009, p.74). The managers and engineers will be actively involved in the process of updating the work plan. Therefore, any necessary action, which had not been previously planned for, will be included.
iii) Reviewing the project schedule situation is the next procedure. This will involve evaluating whether there are some activities, which should have been completed and have not yet been completed. The management of the project will work with the people who have not completed their planned activities in order to ensure that the single-track bridge project stays on track.
iv) Re-scheduling of the project (Jha, 2011, p.11). This will be done in order to ensure that the project runs according to the updated work plan, which is more real compared to the initial one.
v) Reviewing the budget situation on a continuous basis (Jha, 2011, p.11). This indicates how the project is performing. Effective planning, monitoring, and control of onsite construction activities must pay attention to budget constraints. This ensures that no unnecessary expenses are incurred.
vi) Identification of warning signs for any potential problems that the project faces (Jha, 2011, p.204). This involves evaluating deficiencies or variances from the planned activities so that corrective measures can be taken on time. In this step, the managers and the engineers in charge of the single-track bridge will look at such things as the quality decline, decline in teamwork and morale, and lateness in project delivery, among others.
vii) The last important step in the procedure required to plan, monitor, and control onsite activities in the construction of the single-track bridge is continuous communication. This involves communication of any budget, quality, and time constraint risks encountered in the execution of the project. For the success of any construction project, effective communication amongst all stakeholders is required.
Detailed Analysis of the Temporary Works Associated with the Construction of the Single Track Bridge
Temporary works include all other non-permanent works of any kind which are required on the construction site to help in the successful execution and completion of the permanent works (Uher & Loosemore, 2013, p.113). Temporary work excludes only the contractor’s equipment and machines (Jha, 2011, p.11). The management and control of the temporary works associated with a project is also an essential aspect for the success of any construction project. The temporary works enable the construction process to proceed with minimal challenges. Every construction project has a temporary works manager who should ensure efficient monitoring and control of all temporary works (Jha, 2011, p.100). In the construction of the single-track bridge, there is a temporary works manager who will oversee all the temporary works associated with the project. Some of the temporary works associated with the construction of the single track bridge include the following;
i) Earthworks – this will involve the construction of trenches, slopes, excavations, contours, and stockpiles required for the bridge to be erected efficiently (Uher & Loosemore, 2013, p.113). All the activities related to earthworks contribute positively to the success of a construction project but are not part of the permanent works associated with the project. However, they are part of the contractors’ responsibility. He or she has the responsibility to ensure that these temporary earthworks are done in a manner that is required for the successful execution of the project. In the construction of the single-track bridge, the contractor will need to work closely with the temporary works manager.
ii) Other temporary works will include the construction of structures such as trenches, false works, edge protections, site fencing, and cofferdams, which are all part of the entire project (Uher & Loosemore, 2013, p.113). It has been decided that a pre-cast concrete bridge deck will also be required in the construction of the single-truck bridge. Most of the activities associated with the pre-cast bridge also fall under the temporary works category. They will be aimed at improving the activities associated with the permanent works construction project.
iii) Another major temporary work associated with the construction of the single-track bridge will be setting the equipment and plant foundation before the entire construction process begins. A bridge construction includes towering crane bases, erecting supports for large equipment, as well as handling ground works in order to provide suitable locations for plant erections (Uher & Loosemore, 2013, p.113). All these form part of the many temporary works that are associated with the single track bridge. Other temporary works in this project include handling, movement, and transport of mobile cranes and piling rigs.
The Plant and Machinery Requirements for the Erection of the Single Track Bridge
The modern construction projects require the use of high quality equipment, plant, and machinery in order to ensure that high quality constructions that can last longer are achieved. This bridge will require the best machinery and equipment so as to ensure that desired quality is achieved. There are various categories of plant and equipment, which will be required for the successful construction of this single-track bridge. However, this part will mention only a few, which are critical in the success of this project.
Purely steel-made bridges depreciate faster because of the corrosion of the metal due to rain and cold climate (Kelly, Male& Graham, 2004, p. 344). For this reason, the single-track bridge will be made using a pre-cast concrete bridge deck. However, the pre-cast elements will still be supported by steel metals.
Steel materials will be used in the construction of the single track bridge. This is because steel has proved to be efficient in the construction of bridges. It gives the bridge a long-service lifespan. Moreover, steel bridges are economical, environment and user friendly. It will also allow the engineers to complete their work faster because steel gives them an easy time while planning for the design (Kelly, Male& Graham, 2004, p. 344).
Concrete rolled girders will also be used in the construction of this single-track bridge (Van, 2010, p.110). Rolled girders are high quality and highly standardized (Van, 2010, p.110). For this reason, they do not give bridge constructors a hard time in making them fit in a wide range of operations. Moreover, they are available in long pieces needed in bridge construction (Van, 2010, p.110). Therefore, they will eliminate the need for multiple site joining.
The most important equipment that will be used to complete the construction of the single-track bridge will include graders, shovels, backhoes, excavators, and cranes (Kelly, Male& Graham, 2004, p. 344). The project cannot be successful without efficient use of this machinery. They will be used to dig, lift heavy metals, and erect the bridge in one way or another
Construction Sequence Method Statement and, Program of Works for the Erection of the Single Track Bridge
In the construction of the single-track bridge, the engineers will use one of the most common and efficient construction sequent methods. The sequence involved in this construction method involves six essential steps. These steps include bridge foundation, pile cap, bridge column, bridge bearing, bridge deck, and ancillary works, e.g. vehicle parapets and bitumen lying on the bridge deck (Kelly, Male& Graham, 2004, p. 344). When all the six steps are completed successfully, the engineers will have completed the construction of the single track bridge. Research reveals that this construction sequent method has been used in construction project similar to the construction of this specific single-track bridge. Therefore, it is the best method to be used in this project. This sequence provides an opportunity for the engineers to plan effectively all the activities associated with the construction of the bridge. The sequence provides an opportunity for the construction engineers to plan activities from the time of setting foundation to the completion of the project. It also involves careful management of all ancillary works needed for successful construction of the single-track bridge.
Potential Areas of Risks Associated with the Car Park and the Single Track Bridge Project
This construction project is viable to the community. It will provide an opportunity for people working in the industrial areas to access a good and convenient parking space. It has a high economical and social value in the lives of the people living and working around. However, there are some potential areas of risks that might hinder the success of this noble project.
One of the risks is the contaminated nature of the land, on which the developers have planned to set the bridge and the car park. They will have to comply with the rules and regulations set by the authority for contaminated land. Failure to do so might risk the lives of the people using the car park.
Another potential risk for the single track bridge is failure to comply with the construction requirements for quality bridges. This can lead to construction of low-quality bridge with is unacceptable by the local authority quality requirements.
How Value Engineering Techniques Could be Incorporated into the Car Park and, the Single Track Bridge Project
Value engineering techniques are deliberate procedures designed to achieve optimum value for both short and long term construction projects (Kelly, Male& Graham, 2004, p. 97). Value engineering does not focus on cost cutting strategies only. It aims at stimulating the creativity of the stakeholders of a specific construction project in order to achieve maximum returns from the capital, staffing, and maintenance activities (Kelly, Male& Graham, 2004, p. 344). Value-engineering techniques can be used in the construction of the single-track bridge and the car park. The technique will ensure that the developers gain maximum value from the combination of the activities needed in the successful execution of the entire project. Therefore, the engineers and the management of this project will have to incorporate the use of group investigation to improve the operations. The suggestions from the experienced members of the group will also help the engineers to discover alternative design and operational concepts that can improve the construction process (Kelly, Male& Graham, 2004, p. 344). Therefore, through value-engineering techniques, the engineers can discover new ways for improving material usage and construction methods without compromising the planned quality and objectives of the project (Jha, 2011, p.100)