Journal

Historical Context of Contemporary

The United States is considered to be one of the most powerful countries in the world. Its main prospective was to control all possible countries, which would provide a wide range of benefits to the USA. That is why the United States had a considerable interest in the Middle East. The USA wants to keep control over such countries as Iran, Iraq, and Afghanistan. It continues to develop its democratic institutions and reintegration in the country. US interest in these countries is obvious. The main concern is energy, especially the access to it. The next interest is counterterrorism cooperation, and the last one is integration of the country into the world market. All these issues have strongly influenced the relationship between the US and countries of the Middle East.

Personally, I believe that previous conflict with Iraq was similar to that with Afghanistan. These kinds of conflicts are always compared to the banyan tree: “a stem grows and eventually some of its branches drop shoots to the ground that, in turn, flourish and become subsidiary roots. There is no single cause for hostility between nations, although there usually is a single small cluster of trigger events that move the conflict to violence” (Shostak, 2004). In fact, there is no really a single cause to this conflict because a wide range of various issues combined together are supposed to be identified as key reasons for the conflict. In my point of view, the most important reason for this conflict is oil issue. For the USA “oil is a strategic commodity that everybody needs and is crucial to military power while assuring its flow to the world economy makes US power globally indispensable” (Hinnesbusch, 2007). That is why it is obvious that the USA will continue to try to get access to oil deposits in Afghanistan. I suppose that the problem is that both countries cannot find the common ground concerning oil issues. The victory will be possible if both countries will try to cooperate and reach consensus. Moreover, both countries should review the methods they used in politics. The influence should be much milder also excluding any concept of terrorism and violence. I believe that these factors are vital in order to maintain good relationship between two countries.

To sum up, the conflict between the USA and Afghanistan is quite similar to the conflict between the USA and Iraq. Governments of both countries should try to solve that conflict using appropriate ways, which will lead to positive relationship instead of violence and terrorism.

Liberalism

Nowadays, it is commonly accepted that democracy strongly influences political and socio-economic situation in any country. Moreover, democracy is the key element, which helps ensure high standard of living. Nevertheless, different groups of people believe that democracy and capitalism influence the image and the level of wellbeing in any country. It is widely known that political liberalization improves economic condition of the country. That is why it is important to look for reasons why these systems influence the situation in the country and what is the future of these extremely important issues. Hernando de Soto, a leading economist, discussed modern world in great detail. Moreover, he tried to explain the role of liberalism in the developing world.

Hernando de Soto believes that all formulas that were used to enrich the West were the most successful and effective ones. The reason is quite obvious: everyone saw how they worked and what result they brought. He claims that almost all organizations he visited were organized in the form of essential democracy. “So democracy seems to be a natural trait for people, one in which people wish to organize themselves on a consensual matter” (Whitehead, 2009). One more relevant issue that he discusses is that the poor try to participate in the market. I believe it is a good chance for people to improve the economic system because everyone wants to make its contribution to the development of economical system of the country. Hernando de Soto strongly believes that both political and economic liberalism are key components of a successful country. Nevertheless, some companies always avoid one of these elements. Personally, I believe that most companies should try to pay attention to economical liberalism rather that to political one. Economical liberalism is focused on developing an economically strong company, which will bring good profit in the future. Moreover, political liberalism is concerned with the attitude of workers towards the way they work. I guess that if all workers are strictly controlled, the result will be much better.

All in all, economical and political liberalism are of vital importance. In order to develop a prospective company, ones should adhere to the principles of market economy and political freedom. Moreover, attention should be paid to the needs of people. The key concept is to listen to the market and people’s needs and desires.

Class System Theory

Capitalism is one of the most popular power structures that is widely used in the modern world. In fact, this kind of power structure was investigated by many economists who believed that capitalism was the most appropriate way of achieving success on the market. Moreover, one of such economists was Lenin. He even pointed out the most vital features of capitalism, namely “the concentration of production and capital has developed to such a high stage that it has created monopolies which play a decisive role in economic life” (Lenin, 1996). Nevertheless, I strongly believe that capitalism does not help reach desirable results on the market because it is based on exploitation. Middle class and even the poor are working for few wealthy people. I totally agree that capitalist world-economy will not survive in the future.

In fact, capitalism is based on social and ecological exploitation. Moreover, it implies violence and subordination. It strongly influences all spheres of human lives, namely education, health care, and environment. The purpose is to make as much money as possible. As a result, people become miserable and they forget about vital elements of life: family and health. They work from the morning till night and become isolated and emotionally exhausted.

One more relevant issue is that a lot of people suffer from this system. Their rights are limited. The system cuts down social services, dismisses workers, closes hospitals, and destroys everything in order to make money and remain at its level. That is why it is not weird that now people are ready to wake up and change the world they live in. The world will be much better if the desire to make profit will be transferred to the background.

To sum up, capitalism will not survive in the future because people will try to look for a better system that will enable them to work and enjoy life. It is a right time to change the world. That is why capitalism will be the last system in the long list of systems that people will choose from.

Postmodernism

Nowadays, the role of women in solving the problems concerning international politics is limited. That is why we rarely see women at different meeting of leaders of the world when they discuss important issues. The participants are mostly men. Frankly speaking, women themselves have many thoughts and ideas how to conduct international politics and how to remain peace in the world.

I believe that women have their own perspectives on politics, peacemaking, and human needs. They carefully analyze consequences of some events and everyday violence in the world. They suggest effective methods of fighting violence in modern world and, as a result, it leads to justice and lasting peace in the entire world.

Speaking about feminist perspectives on international relations, they increased in the recent years. However, the relation between feminists and international relation scholars remained unchanged. There is a kind of misunderstanding between feminists and scholars because they have different views on international issues. Moreover, “feminists and IR scholars frequently talk about different worlds and use different methodologies to understand them”. I think that the problem of gender discrimination plays one of the leading roles in increasing misunderstandings. Men cannot except the fact that women are more peaceful than they are. The world will change if women rule it. It will be less violent. Recent studies show that only few peacemaking processes where started by women and, as a result, women’s problems and needs are not fully met. I think that feminists are eager to change our world and they have another view on today’s world. They believe that a great percentage of conflicts are caused by the problems of gender hierarchies, which in turn result in inequality and oppression. There is one opinion that war occurs in societies with gender inequality.

To sum up, I want to admit that women have a right to participate in an international meeting concerning the problem of international politics and peace as well. Moreover, their attitude and thoughts towards political issues may be useful for the prosperity of the world.

Political Culture Theory

Nowadays, modern realism is a powerful mechanism, which provides people with vital ideals concerning world affairs. Moreover, it is a key point of other theories related to international politics. Realism was considered a leading light in the US foreign policy. This mechanism enables to find appropriate decisions for the US foreign policy. Nevertheless, due to fast development of the world, it becomes obvious that the approach of realism should be improved. In fact, one of the most vital features of realism is the ability to find straightness from one generation to another. Realism is commonly regarded as a grand theory because it is relevant to modern world. It provides a wide range of ideas concerning the US foreign policy. “A classical realist, asserted that power politics most appropriately identified the pattern of behavior between states based on his observations of the historical behavior of states” (Hayaud-Din, 2003). The equipoise of power and intimidation became the leading concepts of foreign policy. Nevertheless, Barber has another point of view concerning realism and foreign policy. “One McWorld tied together by technology, ecology, communications, and commerce” (1992). He emphasizes that power and intimidation are the negative consequences of globalization and it will bring no benefits to foreign policy. The USA should change its interest and values concerning the foreign policy.

All in all, realism is considered to be one of the most sufficient mechanism that helps find vital thoughts and ideas related to foreign policy. Despite the fact that power and intimidation are the leading concepts of the foreign policy, Baber believes that these components lead to a decline of globalization. In fact, various people have different points of view, thus it is obvious that ideas concerning foreign policy may vary. Personally, I fully support the position of realists because I believe that realism provides us with an appropriate vision of the USA foreign policy.

Peace Studies Theory

In recent years, Peace Studies started to be formalized and suggested as a part of university curriculum. As for me, formalization of the Peace Studies is one of the most important steps in the development of modern world. I think that people should be more intelligent and aware not only about the issues of violence studies, but also get to know what Peace Studies actually are. Nevertheless, formalization of these studies faced a great amount of opposition. Some scientist believe that there is no need to make Peace Studies into a separate discipline because all issues of Peace Studies are covered by other disciplines, namely history and philosophy. Nevertheless, the Peace Studies help understand the problems of modern societies better.

Frankly speaking, I think one of the most important values associated with peace studies are discussions concerning the issue of terrorism. During such discussions, people share their points of view about terrorism, its causes, and even justifications of terrorism. Sometimes different thoughts about justification of terrorism are impractical and even disingenuous, but some people still have them and there is nothing wrong with it because they are their thoughts. Personally, I pointed out for myself that Peace Studies became an educational field that is appropriate to the world and students’ lives as well. It is an excellent way of gaining skills and courage to resist the obstacles that our world faces. Peace Studies give a possibility to students to study the world they live in and to see how one can change the world in a non-violent way. I think that by the phrase “images of truth” Robin J. Crews means the ability of people to learn more about the world they inhabit and to change the world themselves. These images are ones of the ideal world so people should evoke them in their imagination.

To sum up, I want to admit that the benefits associated with Peace Studies are obvious. Moreover, Peace Studies show how to care about other people, and by doing so we transform our world, our lives, and lives of those who are in need.

References

Baber, B. (1992). Jihad vs mcworld.The Atlantic Magazine.

Hayaud-Din, M. A. (2003). “U.S. foreign policy in Islamic South Asia: Realism, culture, and policy toward Pakistan and Afghanistan”. Graduate School Theses and Dissertations.

Hinnesbusch, R. (2007). The American invasion of Iraq: Causes and consequences.

Lenin, V. (1996). “Lenin: Imperialism, the highest stage of capitalism.” Lenin. Pluto Press.

Shostak, A. B. (2004).Defeating terrorism/developing dreams: Trade towers. (2nd ed.). USA: Chelsea House Publishers.

Whitehead, J. C. (2009). Rethinking liberalism. Volume X (Number 1).